Application of Remote Sensing and Gis for the Assessment of Groundwater Quality and Vulnerability in Akaki Catchment, Addis Ababa

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Addis Ababa University


Remote sensing and GIS tools are an advanced and effective technologies used to assess both surface and groundwater quality. Using spatial analyst extension, This study indicated the spatial distribution of groundwater parameters in the Akaki catchment. Water samples collected from boreholes passes through a physic-chemical laboratory analysis and the results can be used to generate groundwater quality map and to estimate water quality index. Groundwater parameters such as Sodium (Na+) ,Chloride (Cl-), Electrical conductivity (EC), Ammonium (NH4), Nitrate (No3-), Fluoride (F-),Calcium(Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Sulfate (So42-), Potassium (K+) were selected for this purpose. Overlay analysis of each parameter maps were applied to generate groundwater quality map. Estimation of water quality index (WQI); the technique of rating water quality were made using equations and based on maximum allowable limit of WHO (World Health Organization) for drinking water which in this paper is related with land-use and land-cover of the area. The value of WQI ranges from 73.81 to 1.08 which was then classified in to excellent, very good and poor for drinking purposes. DRASTIC model was constructed to indicate vulnerability of the area to groundwater pollution potential. Hydro chemical map were generated which is used to determine the water type. Water Quality Index (WQI) was calculated to determine the suitability of water for human consumption and suitable recommendations to prevent further deterioration of water quality suggested.



DRASTIC Model, Groundwater Quality, Hydrochemistry, Interpolation, WQI