Determination of Metal Contents in Eggplants and their Corresponding Soil of the Plant Cultivated in Ethiopia.

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Addis Ababa University


Eggplant is one of an edible vegetable in the world including Ethiopia. It is among the widely produce vegetable in the world. The aim of this study is to determine the metal contents of eggplants and their corresponding soil sample collected from different areas in Ethiopia (Bishoftu, Koka, Alemtena, Meki and Zuway). Levels of selected metals (Na, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd) were determined using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. After proper sample pretreatment, known weight of eggplant sample was wet digested using 4 mL of HNO3, 1 mL of HClO4 for 2:30 h at 270 oC and for soil sample 3 mL of HNO3, 1 mL of HCl and 1 mL of HClO4 for 2:45 h at 270 oC. Then using the optimized conditions sample preparation was made and levels of metals were determined by FAAS. The mean concentration range (mg/kg) of each metal in eggplant were Na (1,384 - 1,917) > Ca (110 - 158) > Mn (34.5 - 44.2) > Fe (55.9 - 94.8) > Cu (4.3 - 10.0), Zn (17.9 - 29.2) > Pb (1.8 - 4.5) and in soil samples Fe (4,714 - 5,508) > Na (843 - 1,120) > Ca (237 - 788), Mn (617 -763) > Zn (50.7 - 99.4) > Cu (44.8 - 74.0) > Pb (13.8 - 15.8), respectively. Ni and Cd were below the detection limit. The result indicates that eggplant is a good source of essential macro and micro metals and free from toxic metal Cd but not free from the toxic element lead, the concentration of Pb are higher than the WHO guidelines 0.2 mg/kg. ANOVA indicated that there is no significant different between the mean concentration of Fe and Cu, and Na and Pb among eggplant and soil samples at 95% confidence level, respectively. The bioavailability of the metals in eggplant was investigated by analysis of soil pH, electric conductivity, total dissolved solid and salinity. Bioaccumulation factors exhibited a significantly higher accumulation of Na from the soil to the eggplant but for the other element it is less than one.



Eggplant, Heavy Metals, Minerals, Soil Properties, Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry