Risk factors of birth asphyxia among newborns delivered at public hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2019.

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Addis Ababa University


Background: - World Health Organization defined birth asphyxia as the failure to initiate and sustain breathing at birth. Globally, 23% of neonatal mortality occurs due to birth asphyxia and in Ethiopia, 31.6% of neonatal mortality occurs due to birth asphyxia. The effect of birth asphyxia is not limited only to death but also has a short and long term neurodevelopment sequel, including cognitive and motor disabilities which are almost untreatable. Objective: - The objective of this study was to assess risk factors of birth asphyxia among newborns delivered at public hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2019. Methods: Institutional based unmatched case-control study was conducted with a total sample size of 213 (71 cases and 142 controls) in Addis Ababa public hospitals from March 1–April 30, 2019. Cases were selected consecutively using consecutive sampling technique and controls were selected by systematic random sampling method. Data was collected using structured questionnaire through face to face interview with index mothers, measurements and chart record review using checklist. The collected data was entered to Epi data version 4.4 and exported to SPSS version 25 for analysis. Finally, it was analyzed by binary logistic regression model. Variables with (p< 0.25) in bivariate analysis were entered to multivariable logistic regression. Statistical significance was declared at P<0.05. Result: - In this study, 70 cases and 140 controls with their mothers were included with the overall response rate of 98.5%. After doing multivariable logistic regression analysis, significantly associated variables with birth asphyxia were: Anti-partum hemorrhage [AOR=7.17,95%CI(1.73-29.72)], low birth weight [AOR=2.87,95%CI(1.01-8.13)], preterm birth [AOR=3.4, 95%CI (1.04-11.16)], caesarean section delivery[AOR=2.75,95%CI (1.01-7.42)], instrumental delivery[AOR=4.88,95%CI(1.35-17.61)], fetal distress [AOR=4.77, 95%CI (1.52-14.92)] and meconium stained amniotic fluid [AOR=9.02,95% CI(2.96-30.24)]. Conclusion: Antepartum hemorrhage, cesarean section delivery, instrumental delivery, meconium stained amniotic fluid, fetal distress, preterm birth and low birth weight were found to be the risk factors of birth asphyxia. For thus, efforts should be made to improve the quality of antenatal care and intranatal care services to prevent those identified risk factors of birth asphyxia.



Birth asphyxia, newborn, antenatal, intranatal, neonatal