Identification, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles and Molecular Detection of Salmonella from Chicken Farms in Holeta, Sululta and Sebeta Towns, Central Ethiopia

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Addis Abeba University


Chickens Salmonellosis is one of the leading causes of heavy losses in chicken industry and has a significant public health impact. In Ethiopian chicken farms, determining the antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) status of Salmonella with respect to its reported serovars was not very prevalent. This study was conducted with the objectives of identification, molecular detection and determination of AST profiles of Salmonella species from chickens’ farms in central Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected potential chicken raising areas including Holeta, Sululta and Sebeta from November 2021 to May 2022. A 425 cloacal swabs were sampled by simple random sampling technique, and 18 feed and 18 water samples were collected from 18 farms before providing it for chickens. Out of 461 samples (176, 130 and 155) samples from Holeta, Sululta and Sebeta respectively; 3 (0.65%) Salmonella were identified. From these three isolates 2 (1.14%) and 1 (0.65%) were identified from Holeta and Sebeta respectively. However, no sample was found positive from Sululta. Out of the three isolates, 2 (0.47%) and 1(5.56%) Salmonella were identified from a total of 425 cloacal and 18 feed samples respectively. Biochemically isolated and Omnilog identified as Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B, and Salmonella Enterica and Salmonella Gallinarum (identified from feed, and the later were from cloacae swabs) samples. The invA gene was detected in all of them. Then AST was assessed by 9 antimicrobials of all Oxoid disks; So, Salmonella Gallinarum was resistant to streptomycin and tetracycline. Whereas, Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B and Salmonella Enterica were intermediate to eropenem and streptomycin disks. Only sample type variable was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The findings showed that Salmonella can be present in chickens and their environments. Even though isolates numbers were low, all of them were resistant and intermediate to some of the antimicrobials; and if it transmitted to other animals and humans with their resistant genes, it can pose a serious risk of transmission of resistant developed genes. This warrants the implementation of strong biosecurity policy, and proper use of antimicrobials by excluding resistance developed antimicrobials from the market. Moreover, awareness should be created to the chicken farm owners on measures to avoid biosecurity and management risk factors of Salmonellosis and the occurrence of antimicrobials resistance in chicken farms



Antimicrobials, , Identification, Salmonell, Chickens, Detection, Ethiopia, Farms