Isolation and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Shigella and Salmonella Species from Children with Acute Diarrhoea in Mekelle Hospital and Semen Health Center ,Tigray, Ethiopia.

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Addis Ababa University


Background: Diarrhoea and acute gastroenteritis are among the leading causes of illnesses and deaths in infants and children throughout the world, especially in developing countries. Globally, Salmonella and Shigella remain the major contributors to acute enteric infections and diarrhoea. Emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance to newer and more potent agents used in treatment have been described for Salmonella and Shigella species. Objectives: To isolate and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella and Shigella species from children with acute diarrhoea in Mekelle Hospital and Semen Health Center. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 260 children with acute diarrhoea in Mekelle, from November 2011 to March 2012. Results: Out of the 260 study participants 145 (55.8%) were males and 115 (44.2%) were females. Majority of the patients (44.2%) were children under five years of age. A total of 120 enteropathogens were isolated. The frequency of isolation was 19 (7.3%), 18 (6.9%) and 83 (31.9%) for Salmonella species, Shigella species and intestinal parasites respectively. Most of the Shigella isolates were resistant to ampicillin (88.9%), Tetracycline (77.8), cotrimoxazole (55.6%) and chloramphenicol (55.6%). Among the Salmonella isolates highest resistance was observed to ampicillin (89.5%), Tetracycline (89.5%), chloramphenicol (78.9%) and cotrimoxazole (57.9%). Multi-drug resistance was noted in 19 (100%) and 16 (88.9%) of Salmonella and Shigella species respectively. Conclusion and recommendation: Shigella and Salmonella are still challenging pathogens in children < 5 years of age. High antibiotic resistance was observed among both isolates to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole. Ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ceftriaxone were effective for all isolates. To reduce the incidence of these enteropathogens, improving personal and food hygiene has to be strengthened. The establishment of antibiotic policy and treatment guideline are recommended based on the susceptibility profile.



Diarrhoea, Salmonella, Shigella, Antimicrobial susceptibility, Ethiopia