Nanophotonics for 21st Century: From Fabrication to Application

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Addis Ababa University


This project work gives a panoramic view of the past activities, present development and future directions with multi-facets application possibilities of nanophotonics. Nanophotonics is a new paradigm of nanoscience for 21st century, which deals with optical processes at the much smaller length scale than the wavelength of optical radiation. The nanoscale matter-radiation interaction includes nanoscale confinement of radiation, nanoscale confinement of matter, and nanoscale photo-physical or photochemical transformation, offer numerous opportunities for both fundamental research and technological applications. Two main broad areas of Nanophotonics are Surface Plasmonics and Photonic Crystal. Surface Plasmonics are collective charge oscillations that occur at the interface between conductors and dielectrics. Plasmonic devices have already shown to be excellent candidates for a number of different optical applications. Photonic Crystals are artificial periodic structures whose dielectric constant is periodically modulated in the order of light wave length, which can create arrange of forbidden frequencies called a Photonic band gap (PBG). In Photonic Crystal structures, the band structures ideas of solid state physics are applied to electromagnetic wave. Here we present mainly the physics of nanophotonics, challenges in fabrications and many applications. This paper concludes with the future of nanophotonics, seems bright and close to reality. This field is expected to revolutionize many aspects of modern life. We start with a brief introduction and then elaborate the physics behind it. The application areas are, however, wide spread and in every field of Science and Technology



From Fabrication to Application