Examination of the Levels and Determinant Factors of Fertility and Contraceptive use in Northwest Ethiopia: With Special Reference to the Application of the Bongaarts’ Model

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Addis Ababa University


Background: Nearly two million people are added to the population of Ethiopia each year. It is the second most populous country in Africa (next to Nigeria) and usually quoted as one of the demographic giants on the African continent. It has now become clear that uncontrolled fertility has adversely influenced the socio-economic, demographic and environmental situations of Ethiopia. Rapid population growth has hampered its development making the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger difficult. The country has experienced many man made and natural disasters. This undesirable situation is further aggravated by rapid population growth. In spite of the rapid population growth in Ethiopia in General and in the Amhara region (especially in the two Gondar Zones) in particular the contraceptive prevalence rates are reported to be low. Objectives: A number of distinct objectives that addressed several issues which ultimately led to the examination of fertility and the use of family planning methods were employed. Efforts were made to estimate the fertility rates and quantify the contribution of each of the proximate determinants of fertility that bring fertility below its biological maximum in North and South Gondar Zones of Northwest Ethiopia. It was also aimed at identifying the factors influencing fertility and investigating the perception of the study subjects towards rapid population growth. Moreover, efforts were made to closely explore the current practices and future intentions of the study subjects towards contraception. Methods: The study had two components. The first one was a quantitative study which involved 3512 women aged 15 to 49 years. The second component was a qualitative study which consisted of five focus group discussions and ten key informant interviews