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Mastitis is inflammation of mammary gland and primarily results from invasion of pathogenic microorganisms through teat canal. Mastitis has great effect on milk quality, production, composition and economy, and public health significance. Mastitic milk losses its appearance, flavor, maintenance of original nutritional qualities and has no long shelf life. Factors that influence infection rate with mastitic organisms are host factor, environmental factor and pathogenic factor. Mastitis can be classified as contagious and environmental depending on the source of infection. A variety of diagnostic tests can be employed to screen and detect mastitis, as well as to isolate and identify the causative agents. The study was conducted in east shoa zone Adama and Akaki woredas with the objectives of determining the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis to identify risk factor of bovine mastitis, to isolate and identify the bacterial causes of bovine mastitis and to conduct in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test of isolated pathogens from September 2008 to 2009. For this study, 102 and 46 small holder dairy farms and 303 and 200 dairy cows were selected .by one stage cluster sampling in Adama and Akaki woredas respectively. Questionnaire survey was administered to the small holder dairy farm owners to collect data on clinical examination of animal and farm attribute. Farms inspection and clinical examination of cow was performed to associated mastitis with farm based factors and animal factors. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as screening for selection of culture samples for the cow under study. Strict aseptic producers were used when collected milk samples in order to prevent contamination with microorganism. The bacteriological culture was performed following the standard microbiological technique to diagnose the occurrence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis. All collected data analyzed by using descriptive statistics SPSS and Stata. In both the study farms the prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical mastitis were made at herd, caw and quarter level. Based on clinical manifestation for clinical mastitis prevalence and on California mastitis test for sub-clinical mastitis prevalence infections. In the result revealed that the prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd, cow and quarter level (15.6%, 5, 9% and 2.9%) and (17.3%, 3.0% and 1.5%) in Adama and Akaki respectively. X The prevalence of subclinical mastitis at herd, cow and quarter level (57.8%, 33.6%and 20.8%) and (60.8%, 25.0 % and12.7%) in Adama and Akaki respectively. The major isolates of pathogen in both areas from subclinical mastitis cases were S.aureus (26.8% and 34.8%), S.intermidiua (2.48% and 0.49%) ,CNS (18.7% and 20.9%) , St. agalactiae (5.77%and5.8%), St dysgalactaie (1.99% and1.16%), St uberis (4.47% and 1.16%) ,Bacillus Species (7.96% and9.3%), E.coli (6.46% and 6.98% ).and from clinical mastitis S.aureus (2.48% and 2.38% ), St agalactiae (_3.84% and 3.48%) in Adama and Akaki woredas respectivly . Regarding to association risk factor with prevalence of mastitis, the univariate logistic regression in cow level showed that among the risk factor considered, stage of lactation (p< 0.05), parity number (p< 0.05) and presence of teat lesion (p<0.05) significant effect of sub clinical mastitis in both woredas, milking mastitis cow last (p<0.05) in both woredas in herd level was significant effect .In considering multivariate logistic regression only stage of lactation had significant on sub clinical mastitis in both woredas in cow level. Regarding the antimicrobial tests comparing the over all efficiency (on all isolates) Gentamycine, Kanamycine, Chloramphenicol and Vancomycine were the most effective antibiotics were found susceptible in both woredas. Fallowing that Streptomycin and penicilline were effecective. The least effective drug was Bacitracine. Amoxaciline was also with relatively weak efficacy.



Antibiotics sensitivity test, control, Isolation, Identification, mastitis, Prevalenence