The Practice and Major Challenges of School-Based Tutorial Program For Female Students: the Case of Primary Level Second Cycle (Grade 5-8) Governmental Schools of Addis Ababa

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Addis Ababa University


This study was aimed at investi gating the practice and the major challenges of school-Based tutorial program provided for female students of the primary level second cycle (grade 5 - 8) governmental schools of Addis Ababa. In conducting the study ,a descriptive survey method was employed in order to obtain pertinent information concerning the current state of school based tutorial programs provided for primary level second cycle (grade 5-8 ) female students in Addis Ababa. Randomly selected sample government schools (N= 8) were included in the stud y. Since tutorial participant female students, teachers and parents are the appropriate and knowledgeable bodies to respond to the problem of the school-based tutorial program, using a stratified sampling technique 3 sub-ci ties of the 10 and 8 schools of the 3 randomly selected sub-cities are included in the study. Hence, 190 students, 90 parents and 45 teachers were invo lved in the study by filling the questionnaires to provide first hand info rmation. Besides, 8 school tutorial coordinators, 8 subcity education otTtce focal persons and I city education bureau expert with 8 teachers ( among those 45 teachers fi lling the questiolUlaire) were participat ing in the study through interview. Quantitative data collecting format was also employed in order to secure quantitative data. Moreover documents showing the three and four consecutive years Engli sh and Mathematics results of tutorial parti cipant female students who are fo und at grade 7 and 8 in the year 1999 E.C are also co llected for the purpose of statistical analysis. Data analysis was made by using percentage, average and line charts that shows the trends of stude nt's academic results. The study revealed that the tutori al program was offered only to female students of grade 5-8 111 3 su bjects i.e. (Engli sh ,Mathematics and integrated science) for grade 5 and 6; and five subjects (Engli sh ,Mathematics ,Physics, Biology and Chemistry) for grade 7 and 8 .The tutorial program run at the end of the week on Saturday and each sess ions lasting 21m 30 minutes to 3 hI's 20 minutes for grade 5 and 6 ;and grade 7 and 8 respecti ve ly. However, in few schools the session lasts for 2hours and 15 minutes to 3hours and 45 minutes. The average proportions of eligible female students who are participating in the tutori al program are 48.9 percent of the total. And more male teachers 76 percent than female teachers 24 percent were participating in the program as a tutor; and almost all tutors are fulfilling the requirement that havi ng a diploma to teach in primary level second cycle. The study also revealed that the tutorial program was organized by one coordinator in each school and the role of parents, PTU members, Kebele Education Team leaders, Sub-city Education officials and City Education Bureau Expert were found insignificant. Tutees and tutors are se lected for the program using a certain criteria and these criteria were emanate from the city ed ucation bureau and employed in each school non-uniformly. The total situation of the tutorial program seems run in a loosely organized way. Moreover, the tutorial program has believed to be improving students' academic achievement. In this regard the tutorial participant students scores in Engli sh and Mathematics was not found improving from year-to-year though almost all students scored an average score of 69 and above, which is sati sfactory by the Ethiopian school standards. The major challenges of the tutorial program were the attendance problems of students, low level of parental participation, and absence of training for tutors on the methodology of tutoring and loosely organized tutorial program among others. Finally, in general, the study discussed the general situation of the tutorial program offered for the primary level second cycle female students of Addis Ababa and the major chall enges the program faced such as the problem of attendance, absence of training on the methodology of tutoring for tutors and provide the possible so lutions like increasing participation rates, providing training on the methodology of tutoring for tutors and the like that might be employed to improve the tutorial practice