Sero-Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors for the Reactivation of Cytomegalovirus Among Hiv-1 Positive Individuals on Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


The end result of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the depletion of the immune system that leads to OIs like HCMV. Sero-prevalence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in HIV-infected patients is high, more than 95% in immune compromised people even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The objective of this study was to assess the sero-prevalence and associated risk factors for the reactivation of HCMV infection among HIV-1 patients on HAART and to identify the common associated risk factors on these populations. A cross sectional study design on the samples of HIV-1 patients on HAART was taken place. This study was carried out using PCR abbot system (Abbot System) for the determination of HIV-1/viral load (RNA copies/ml) and chemiluminescent Micro particle immunoassay (CMIA) for the qualitative detection of IgG and IgM antibody to HCMV in human plasma. Out of the total 76 participants recruited for this study 46(60%) were female participants 30(40%) were male participants median age was 38.5, mean age 37.5, and the most frequent age was 40.The HCMV sero-prevalence (anti-HCMV IgG) was 76/76(100%) and 3/76(3.9%) for anti-HCMV IgM. Previous history of lower CD4 or recent CD4 decrease as well as higher HIV-1/viral load was not significantly related (p> 0.05) (p = 0.317 for IgM) to HCMV positivity. Rather other previous immunologic and clinical profiles were correlated (p< 0.05). The highest HCMV prevalence shows the endemicity of the virus and serological tests for HCMV should be taken into account as a diagnostic tool. This study strongly recommends that HCMV comprehensive study should be taken place in Ethiopia to note the actual figure of prevalence of HCMV in HIV-1 patients on ART naïve and taking ART as well as HCMV serological tests should be taken into account.



Sero-Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors, Reactivation of Cytomegalovirus Among Hiv-1, Positive Individuals on Highly, Active Anti Retroviral Therapy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia