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Title: Acute and Sub-chronic toxicity of a formulation comprising cymbopogon citratus essential oil and Jatropha Curcas fixed oil.
???metadata.dc.contributor.*???: Dr. Mekbeb Afework (PhD, Associate Professor; Dep’t of anatomy, AAU)
Keywords: C. citratus formulation, industry based emulsifier, acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies
Issue Date: Aug-2017
Abstract: Background: Ectoparasites including lice, sheep keds, ticks, fleas and mange mites are reported to cause wide range of livestock’s health problems. They are very common and widely distributed in all agro-ecological zones in Ethiopia. One way of alleviating problems caused by the ectoparasites could be through the use of traditional medicinal plants. Cymbopogon citratus is one of the traditional herbs with a potential use for such purpose. It is an economically important aromatic perennial medicinal plant commonly called lemon grass in English and “lomisar” in Amharic. Previous study on C. citratus formulation for acaricidal effect showed a 100% lethal effect on lice and sheep ked. The current anti ectoparasitic formulation was developed as a means for effective and safe product with lesser cost of production at industrial scale with a reasonably favorable sells cost. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the safety of C. citratus based formulation through acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies on histology of liver and kidney, and blood parameters in mice. Method: In the acute toxicity study 48 female mice were grouped into eight treatment groups (treated orally by gastric intubation with 1.25%, 1.9%, 2.9%, 4.4%, 6.6%, 9.9% and 15% of 1ml of the formulation per 100g). The control group is treated with distilled water of the same dose. The sub-chronic toxicity study was done by grouping 18 animals into two treatment groups and control group. The treatment groups received the formulation at a dose of 1.25% and 3.75% of 1ml per 100g, and the control group received distilled water orally by gastric intubation. Result: The acute toxicity study revealed no changes on the general behavior of animals and no sign of toxicity was observed in the treatment groups (up to 9.9%). However, animals treated with 15% of the formulation did manifest sign of toxicities after 30 minutes of administration. No toxicity related sign in sub-chronic treatment groups was observed. There was also no animal death throughout the study period. In the acute toxicity study no significant organ and body weight changes were observed in all treatment groups compared to the control. Significant weight change was observed in animal group received 3.75% of the formulation in sub-chronic viii | P a g e study. Furthermore, no significant variation was noted in the size, texture and color of the liver and kidneys between the treatment and control groups. Assessment of the effect of the formulation in the sub-chronic study on blood cell parameters (WBC, Platelets, RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC) on mice treated with both doses did not reveal any significant difference (p> 0.05) with the control group animals. There was also no significant change (p> 0.05) in the liver function parameters (AST, ALT, ALP and Bilirubin) compared to the control. However, there was significant increase (p< 0.05) in both total cholesterol and LDL levels at both doses. The triglyceride and HDL values revealed a significant decrease (p< 0.05) at only high dose (3.75% of the formulation) compared to the control. The level of uric acid in animals treated with 3.75% of the formulation showed significant increase (p< 0.05) compared with the control. Liver and kidney histopathology of both treatment group and control group animals were almost the same with no significant sign of necrosis. However, insignificant mononuclear leucocytic infiltrations were observed adjacent to portal triads and central veins in the liver tissue sections of both treatment group animals. There were also mono nuclear cellular infiltrations in kidney tissue sections of both treatment groups. Conclusion and Recommendations: The acute toxicity study, blood cell parameters and different biochemical findings had revealed no sign of toxicity. However; other measured parameters like the body weight, histological and some biochemical findings had shown both significant and insignificant sign of toxicities. So, it may be necessary to conduct similar safety study on the same as well as different visceral organs by increasing number of animals per group, and in higher animals like goats and sheep. The effect of the formulated preparation over long periods should also be evaluated through chronic toxicity study.
Description: A thesis submitted to the department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Anatomy.
Appears in Collections:Thesis - Anatomy

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