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Title: Diversity, Distribution, Relative Abundance, and Habitat Association of the Larger Mammalian and Avian Fauna of Alatish, Ethiopia
???metadata.dc.contributor.*???: Dr. Assefa Mebrate
Prof. Afework Bekele
Mengesha, Girma
Issue Date: Jun-2005
Publisher: Addis Ababa University
Abstract: Alatish contains various forms of larger mammalian and avian fauna. The diversity, distribution, relative abundance and habitat association of the larger mammals and birds were investigated during the wet and dry seasons in Alatish. Based on topographic map, satellite image and preliminary survey, four habitat types were identified in Alatish comprising 37 blocks in 100 km2. Eleven blocks were randomly selected based on the type of • \ vegetation. Transect length of !0 km in 0.2 km width were randomly selected to cover 20% of the area. Twenty species of larger mammals and 143 species of birds were recorded. Riverine woodland habitat had the highest large mammalian species diversity both in the wet and dry seasons. The lowest diversity of species was obtained in the woodland habitat. Simpson's Similarity Index was used to analyze the similarity in distribution of larger mammals. Larger mammals showed similarity in their distribution in the four habitat types during the dry season. The relative abundance of large mammals and birds was determined using encounter rates that give ordinal scale. Species diversity of birds was the highest in the woodland habitat followed by bamboo woodland with the highest species evenness in distribution. T he wet season survey showed highest species diversity in the wooded grassland habitat owing to the presence of food and water. The dry season survey showed the highest avian species diversity and evenness in the riverine woodland habitat with highest species richness and evenness due to the availability of water. Most of the bird species in Alatish were locally rare as a result of habitat degradation. It is difficult to establish species distribution because of habitat degradation. Availability of food, water and cover was observ ed to be the major factors determining the diversity of larger mammals and birds. SPSS analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the use of habitat for larger mammals during the dry season. The dry and wet season data for birds showed high significant difference in the use of habitat implying their preference to certain types of habitat. The woodland habitat showed significance difference and positive association for birds. Habitat destruction by the Nomadic "Ealata". and their livestock was severe in Alatish. Poaching and forest fire, also contributed to the destruction of the wildlife habitat. Globally endangered, vulnerable, and rare species such as Alecepbatus busetophus /ora Loxodonta africana and Hippo/ragus eqitinus were once abundant in Alatish. However, currently it was difficult to observe them in Alatish easily. Urgent conservation measures with appropriate management plan are needed to conserve the biological diversity and develop the potential wildlife area of Alatish.
Description: A Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies of Addis Ababa University in Partial Fulfillment of the Degree of Masters of Science in Biology
Appears in Collections:Thesis - Biology

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