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Title: Assessment of HIV-I Transmission Risk from Blood Donors Screened Negative for HIV-I Antibody/Antigen by use of HIV-I DNA PCR
???metadata.dc.contributor.*???: Dr. Beyene Petros
Dr. Dawit Wolday
Mekonen, Teferi
Issue Date: Jun-2004
Publisher: Addis Ababa University
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) by transfusion of blood screened as negative for HIV antigen (Ag)/antibody (Ab) in the Ethiopian Red Cross Society-National Blood Transfusion Service (ERCS-NBTS) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Assessment of risk factors, test performance and efficiency of the HIV screening methods of the ERCSNBTS laboratory (Ag/Ab EIA, Vironostika HIV Uni-Form II Ag/Ab) was made. A total of 408 blood samples from unlinked one-time donations were collected and screened for HIV-1 infection by using Roche Amplicor V 1.5 DNA PCR and discrepant results were checked by Western blot and HIV RNA assays. Data analysis was done by using STATA software. The crude prevalence of HIV-1 infection in blood donors as screened by the ERSC-NBTS was 4.2%, while it was 3.4% as screened by nucleic acid testing. Thus, nucleic acid testing methods detected 3 false positive samples. All IUV-infected donors were replacement donors. The fourth-generation assay used at ERCS-NBTS had an excellent test agreement with HIV-1 DNA PCR assay. The validity of the Ag/Ab EIA was very high as depicted by its: sensitivity (100%), specificity (99.2%), test efficiency (99.3%), positive predictive value (82.4%>) and negative predictive value (100%). Although no false negative blood unit was detected, it was shown that around 0.7% of the donated blood would be wrongly discarded as false positives. This study has also provided good evidence for the need to introduce strong and improved donor selection criteria. This would include, minimizing or exclusion of replacement donors, with an emphasis on recruitment of regular voluntaiy donors, and education of both donors and the general public on the need for safe blood. Similar studies should be done in other parts of the countiy before drawing a general conclusion about the quality/safety of blood donations in Ethiopia. Further studies on HIV incidence among blood donors, proper estimation of risk of HIV transmission through transfusion, and prevalence of HIV infection in transfusion recipients are essential for monitoring the safety of the blood supply. Studies on other transfusion transmittable infectious agents should also be undertaken.
Description: A Thesis Submitted to The School of Graduate Studies In Partial Fulfillment for the Degree of Master of Science in Biology (Applied Microbiology)
Appears in Collections:Thesis- Microbial, Cellular and Molecular Biology

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