|Title:||STUDY ON OGADEN SMALL RUMINANT HAEMONCHOSIS: MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ALBENDAZOLE AND TETRAMISOLE|
|???metadata.dc.contributor.*???:||Dr. Abebe Wossene|
BERSISSA, KUMSA ESETA
|Keywords:||Haemonchus spp, Prevalence, Vulval morphs, Efficacy, Albendazole, Tetramisole;OgadPrevalence, Vulval morphs, Efficacy, Albendazole, Teten;goat;Sheep;Ethiopia|
|Abstract:||The current study was conducted from August 2003 to March 2004 with an attempt to determine the prevalence, morphological characteristics and susceptibility of Ogaden isolate of H. contortus to Albendazole and Tetramisole. During the study period a total of 196 animals (114 sheep and 82 goats) of Ogaden origin were examined. The overall prevalence of Haemonchus species was 91.23% and 82.93 % in sheep and goats respectively. Where as 37.72% and 40.24% prevalence of Trichostrongylus. axei was recorded in sheep and goats respectively. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed between different months of the study period for both abomasal parasites. Out of 3187 female Haemonchus worms recovered from sheep for vulvar morph study, 49.49%linguiform, 28.51% knobbed and 23% smooth were recorded. Similarly from goats out of 2386 female Haemonchus, 53.83%linguiform, 18.45% knobbed and 27.61% smooth were recorded. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed among the three major vulvar flaps between different months of the study period in both sheep and goats. A total of 1580 linguiform female Haemonchus from sheep were further classified and differentiated into 27.16%A, 14.80% B, and 5.34%C and 2.18%I. Similarly from goat a total of 1285 linguiform female Haemonchus were identified as 27.35 % A, 17.54% B, and 6.63% C and 2.31% I. With in the linguiform morphotypes, the A type linguiform was noted to exhibit monthly fluctuation (p < 0.05) during the study period. In the current study from a total of 76 sheep a total of 1159 adult male Haemonchus recovered and identified into 95.08% H. contortus, 3.45% H. placei and 1.47%H. longistipes. Similarly from a total of 55goats, 841 male Haemonchus were collected and identified as 96.55%H. contortus, 2.97%H. placei and 0.48 %H. longistipes. With regard to the distribution of mono and/or poly specific Haemonchus species, out of the 76 sheep examined 57.89% were harbouring H. contortus only, 22.37% H. contortus and H. placei, 7.89% H. longistipes and H. placei and the rest 11.84% were having H. contortus, H. placei and H. longistipes. As for goats, out of the 55 animals examined, 58.18% were found to harbour H. contortus mono-species, 38.18% H. contortus and H. placei, 3.64% H. longistipes and H. placei and unlike sheep none was found to harbour triple Haemonchus species. This result unveiled the coexistence and sympatry of two or three Haemonchus species in a single small ruminant host thus requiring the consideration of such heterologous hosts in the control strategy of the parasite. On the other hand, a total of 30 lambs were used for efficacy evaluation of Albendazole and Tetramisole in the controlled experimental study. ix The lambs were divided into four treatment groups of five lambs in each group, one positive and one negative control groups also consisting of five in each group. Exiptol Greece, Albendazole Pakistan, Tetramsole Greece and Duxamintic Pakistan anthelmintics were evaluated by FECRT, controlled anthelmintic efficacy test and egg hatch assay test. Epg was observed to be strong indicator of induced infection in all the infected groups of animals showing statistically very significant difference (p < 0.05) between pre infection, post infection, pretreatment and post-treatment during the entire experimental study period. All the drugs were found to possess a 100% efficacy value up on evaluation by aforementioned efficacy detection techniques indicating also the susceptibility of Ogaden isolate H. contortus to all tested drugs irrespective of their origin. In view of the fact where helminthosis dominated by haemonchosis is confronting animal productivity of the study area, due attention to the disease and control interventions should be launched to minimize any economic loses and increase small ruminant productivity. Any control option that needs to be conducted in the study area should consider the coexistence of two or three species of Haemonchus spp in single host and involvement of heterologous hosts. The efficacy of the evaluated anthelmintics can only be maintained and conserved by wise and better utilization of the existing drugs to prevent the inevitable problem of anthelmintic resistance as the consequence of anthelmintic usage.|
|Appears in Collections:||Thesis - Tropical Veternery Medicine|
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