|Title:||Inclusive Mobile Money Information System for Everyday Money Particles|
|???metadata.dc.contributor.*???:||Dr. George Ghinea|
|Keywords:||Mobile Money;Inclusive Mobile Money System;Social Informatics;Human Centred Design;Financial Technology Design;Format of Digital Money|
|Publisher:||Addis Ababa University|
|Abstract:||Rural people living m remote areas of developing countries have no access to financial services. But the development of mobile technology}- becomes a good solution to create access to financial services for such category of individuals. Previous studies on mobile Financial services overlooked users' everyday money practices, are not inclusive of illiterates, and focused on technical issues. The platforms are designed without having fully understood individuals’ complex financial practices and behavior, which affects uptake of digital transactions and digital value storage. To this end, this research intends to explore and analyse everyday money practices of rural Ethiopians with the objective of informing the design of an inclusive mobile money information system. In order to achieve this objective, data is collected from three contexts: money practices in religious, social, and m open air market contexts. Data of the former two contexts are collected from seventy community leaders, while data for the third case is collected from other sixty respondents in different tune but same district. In all the contexts, the majority of the respondents are rural Ethiopians who cannot read and write, who identify currency notes and coins based on currency's size, images and icons, and colour of money bills. Human centred design approaches and ethnography method (observation, interview, video recording. as well as capturing photos) and qualitative open coding technique is also used for concept identification and mapping. The analysis of the three contexts revealed that there are many financial practices Embedded in religious, social, cultural, and transactional practices that inform the ways people interact with money. For example, money intersects with religious practices (keeping religious money separate), with individuals' sentimental values, with social practices like identity extension and / or hiding while making money gifts, disclosure and or secrecy money practices etc. This shows in individuals' sentimental life context, money is not homogenous or value neutral. Unlike money m formal organizations, money m individuals' private life context embeds a number of social values. The ways money are earned spent, exchanged, saved, stored and recorded are in fact symbolically valuable. This dictates individuals to keep different money in different places. Based on these practices, actionable design interventions were described per design concepts. For example, different colored e-folders with sticky notes can be used to categorize and earmark money, use of temporary e-folders to hold any incoming e-money so that users can give attention before it gets into the stored digital money, and the importance of money tagging is also described. The study also analyzed ways of identifying digital money from any other incoming digital information. Based on the two theories. The study claimed digital money needs to have some kinds of header information as attachments to digital money, also called metadata of digital money Such meta-data can help digital money to remain digital and circulate digitally m the social and economic system. Such capability can scale up the use of digital money. For example, meta-data of cash enable illiterates to trust it. to identify among money bills, and used as a means of communication among people of different languages. In a similarly manner, this study proposed the use of embedded intelligent system that enhances secured digital transactions among citizens. Through such meta formation. embedded intelligent systems can be inbuilt to verify whether an incoming digital data is real digital money or not. At the end of the analysis, inclusive high level mobile money information system architecture is also proposed. An inclusive mobile money system interface is also developed and evaluated on Android 4.2 smart phone. The interface is text free, designed based on the concept of natural interface, the use of images of money bills and mapping of existing money practices. Through this interface, illiterates can easily make changes among different money bills, count and know balance by dragging and dropping images of the bills. Such creative techniques that mimic existing cash-based practices resulted in high evaluation feedback. In short this dissertation contribution include: user centered mobile money information system architecture, mobile money information system requirement analysis framework,possible format (structure) of digital money, and text free interaction design and user interface for illiterates.|
|Description:||A dissertation submitted to the IT PhD Program presented in fulfillment for the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy in information technology (information system)|
|Appears in Collections:||Thesis - Information Science|
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