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INTERCONNECTIONS BETWEEN LIVESTOCK HUSBANDRY PRACTICES, FEED RESOURCES, CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND METHANE EMISSION IN MIXED FARMING AREAS OF BALE HIGHLANDS, ETHIOPIA

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dc.contributor.advisor Dr. Ashenafi Mengistu, Dr. Gebreyohannes Berhane
dc.contributor.author Girma, Defar
dc.date.accessioned 2018-11-29T10:57:51Z
dc.date.available 2018-11-29T10:57:51Z
dc.date.issued 2018-06
dc.identifier.uri http://localhost:80/xmlui/handle/123456789/14684
dc.description PhD Thesis en_US
dc.description.abstract The study was conducted in the potential mixed farming areas of Bale highland to investigate interconnections between livestock husbandry practices, available feed resources, climate variability and methane emission. Using multi-stage purposive sampling, 156 households of the three wealth groups [better (≥4.25 hectare land, >15 TLU); medium (2.25-4.25 hectare land, >5 and ≤15 TLU), and low (≤2.25 hectare land, ≤5 TLU)] were selected. Structured questionnaires, focus group discussions, key informants interview, field visits and feed samples chemical analysis were the employed methods during the study. Secondary data were used from different offices and organization reports, and literature. The nutrient balance was estimated based on the demand and supply while the livestock methane emissions were estimated according to the IPCC guidelines. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and one-way ANOVA tests were used to analyze the data. Indices were computed to obtain the aggregate rank of considered variables. The mean land holding was significantly (P<0.001) different between wealth groups. The mean land allocated for cultivation was 81.47, 84.51 and 89.04% for better, medium and low wealth groups, respectively while the remaining proportion of lands were uncultivable and used for grazing. Cattle were the dominant (84.25%) livestock owned by the households. The productive performances of the livestock were poor and feed scarcity was the prominent constraint (ranked 1st). The major feeds overall mean DM contributions were 71.26%, 13.01% and 12.35% from straws, crop aftermath and mixed native pasture, respectively while significantly (P<0.001) higher private grassland DM yield belongs to the better wealth group. The previous (1986) grazing lands converted to cultivation were estimated to be 99.22% from the land use land cover changes in 2014. This situation appeared to be the major problem of feed resource of the existing livestock production in the area. Roughage feeds have lower ME, DCP and relative feed value (RVF). The mean IVDOMD of the dominant feeds ranges 49.92-54.68% (cereal straw), 40.36% (crop aftermath) and 58.59-62.61% (mixed native pasture) across the wealth group households. Average deficit of 24.2% ME observed for the better wealth group while DCP satisfied 33.3% of the requirement which advises to search a solution for the thrilling deficit that associated to grazing constraint. Weather information access showed differences between the wealth groups. Farmers perceived rainfall pattern variability, and increased temperature and drought frequency over the past years were the variations impede livestock productivity. The respondents witnessed that livestock and grazing land productivity decreased due to land use/land cover changes and accompanied climate variability. Farmers said that they were at a critical state of livestock production that accounted to diminished grazing land, nutrient deficit and climate variability not to sustain the existing livestock. The estimated enteric CH4 emission rate from mature cattle, growing cattle, sheep >1 year, sheep ≤ 1 year, horse and donkey were significantly (P<0.001) higher for the better wealth group while mature cattle (69.78%) shared the highest rate. Though, higher emission rates credited to the large number of animals in the area, cattle stay crucial to the livelihoods of the households, beside the major sources of CH4. In conclusion, poor husbandry practices (veterinary infrastructures, housing, feed quantity and quality, and productive performances), climate variability and the subsequent CH4 emissions should be focus areas of interventions. Therefore, proper husbandry and quality feed supply, improved weather forecast services and promotion of farm level livestock technologies should be practiced wisely to increase productivity and protect the environment from degradation and emissions of the livestock sector. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Climate variability en_US
dc.subject Feed resources en_US
dc.subject Husbandry practices en_US
dc.subject Mixed farming en_US
dc.subject ivestock en_US
dc.title INTERCONNECTIONS BETWEEN LIVESTOCK HUSBANDRY PRACTICES, FEED RESOURCES, CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND METHANE EMISSION IN MIXED FARMING AREAS OF BALE HIGHLANDS, ETHIOPIA en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US


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