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PREVALENCE AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES. FROM HUMANS AND CATTLE IN ADDIS ABABA AND ITS ENVIRONS, ETHIOPIA

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dc.contributor.advisor Dr. Gezahegne Mamo, Prof. Getachew Tilahun
dc.contributor.author Manyazewal, Anberber
dc.date.accessioned 2018-11-29T08:40:37Z
dc.date.available 2018-11-29T08:40:37Z
dc.date.issued 2017-06
dc.identifier.uri http://localhost:80/xmlui/handle/123456789/14676
dc.description PhD Thesis en_US
dc.description.abstract Cryptosporidiosis causes significant diarrheal disease in humans and animals worldwide. In this study, conducted during June/2014 to June/2015, cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were employed to determine the magnitude of Cryptosporidium infection in humans and cattle and to assess its public health significance in Addis Ababa and its surrounding area. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence, characterize species of the parasite and identify risk factors of the infection in humans and dairy cattle in the area. Faecal samples collected from 422 cattle and 300 humans were examined by the Modified Ziehl- Neelsen, PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Data on risk factors of the infection were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and analysis was made by the SPSS software. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium in cattle and humans was 18.6% (95% CI: 14.8–22.5) and 9% (95% CI: 5.5–12.3), respectively. Cryptosporidium andersoni (73.3%) and C. parvum (26.7%) were identified in cattle, whereas C. parvum (81.5%) and C. hominis (18.5%) were detected in humans. In cattle, Cryptosporidium infection was significantly associated with absence of calving pen (OR=2.46, 95% CI: 1.08–5.61), absence of calf bedding (OR=10.55, 95% CI: 4.89–22.66), drinking river/stream water (OR=2.9, 95% CI: 1.5–5.5) and group penning of calves (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.0–7.0). While in humans, the infection showed significant association with drinking stream/well water (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.5–7.4) and contact with cattle and their faeces (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.4–9.5). Cryptosporidium infection occurred from week 1 to 3 months of age in calves with an overall prevalence of 40% (12/30), and pre-weaned and post-weaned calves were merely infected with C. parvum and C. andersoni, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the C. parvum human isolates belong to the bovine genotype family. In conclusion, the zoonotic C. parvum is prevalent and widely distributed in cattle and humans in the study area, pre-weaned calves are the potential risk group for human infection requiring special management attention to prevent transmission of the infection to humans and lessen contamination of the environment. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Cattle en_US
dc.subject Cryptosporidium en_US
dc.subject PCR-RFLP en_US
dc.title PREVALENCE AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES. FROM HUMANS AND CATTLE IN ADDIS ABABA AND ITS ENVIRONS, ETHIOPIA en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US


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