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SHEEP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN URBAN AND PERI-URBAN AREAS OF DEBRE-BERHAN AND DESSIE, ETHIOPIA, AND PERFORMANCE OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF WHEAT BRAN AND LENTIL SCREENING

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dc.contributor.advisor Prof. Berhan Tamir, Dr. Girma Abebe
dc.contributor.author Wude, Tsega
dc.date.accessioned 2018-11-29T08:36:54Z
dc.date.available 2018-11-29T08:36:54Z
dc.date.issued 2017-06
dc.identifier.uri http://localhost:80/xmlui/handle/123456789/14675
dc.description PhD Thesis en_US
dc.description.abstract This study consisting of survey and experimental parts was conducted to characterize sheep production systems in urban and peri-urban areas of Debre-Berhan and Dessie, Ethiopia, and evaluate the effect of different combinations of wheat bran and lentil screening on growth and carcass performance of Menz ram lambs. The survey was undertaken using 240 randomly selected households from Debre-Berhan and Dessie urban and peri-urban areas. Structured and pre-tested questionnaire, focus group discussions and personal observations were used to collect data. Based on the identified feed resources from the survey work, four treatment diets with different combinations of wheat bran and lentil screening were formulated. The treatments were T1 (30g wheat bran and 133g lentil screening), T2 (235g lentil screening), T3 (285g wheat bran), and T4 (227g wheat bran and 120g lentil screening). Twenty four Menz ram lambs of 8 to 10 months of age were grouped into six blocks based on their initial body weight and each block was randomly distributed to each treatment. Five lambs from each treatment were randomly picked and used for digestibility trial and carcass evaluation. According to the survey results, the average family size was greater in peri-urban Debre -Berhan (5.4) than that of Dessie (4.8). The sheep flock size per household was greater for peri-urban Debre-Berhan (16.7± 7.88) than peri-urban Dessie (9.3±7.18). Sheep producers were predominantly traders in urban (47.6 and 37.0%) and farmers (93.3 and 79.0%) in peri-urban areas of Debre-Berhan and Dessie, respectively. The major available feed resources in the study areas were pasture, hay, crop residues, wheat bran, nug seedcake, Attela and legume grain processing by-products. Grazing during the dry season and semi-grazing with stall feeding during the wet season were the major feeding practices identified. In Debre- Berhan area, more respondents (69.0% in urban and 58.9% in peri-urban) were involved in sheep fattening activity than in Dessie area (37.0% in urban and 37.1% in peri-urban). Urban and peri-urban sheep production contributed as a major household income source for 69.0 - 95.2% of the respondents and as a source of food for 4.8- 31% ones. As per ranking index, high feed cost, lack of improved sheep breeds, capital, and labour shortages were identified as major constraints of urban and peri-urban sheep production. Conducive weather conditions, access to concentrate feeds and attractive sheep market prices in urban and peri-urban areas were considered to be opportunities for sheep production. The feeding trial showed that the wheat bran and lentil screening combination affected (P≤0.01) the daily total dry matter intake (TDMI) of the lambs. The concentrate dry matter intake (CDMI) and total crude protein intake (TCPI) of lambs were different (P≤0.001) among the concentrate supplement groups. Lambs assigned to T4 diet showed higher TDMI (814.47 g) and TCPI (107.77g) than lambs on T1, T2 and T3 diet categories. Final body weight (FBW), total body weight gain (TWG) and average daily body weight gain (ADWG) of lambs on T4 diet were higher (P≤ 0.001) than recorded from T1, T2 and T3 diet categories. The experimental lambs showed lower (P≤ 0.01) feed conversion efficiency (0.06) for the diet containing 30g wheat bran and 133g lentil screening (T1) than the values recorded from T2, T3 and T4 diets. The lambs assigned to T4 and T3 diets showed higher (P≤0.05) dry matter digestibility than were in T1. Total nitrogen intake (TNI), nitrogen digestibility (ND) and nitrogen retention (NR) were higher (P≤ 0.001) for lambs in T4 than T2, which were then followed by T3 and T1 diet categories. The slaughter body weight was lower (P≤ 0.001) for those lambs were assigned in T1 than in T2, T3 and T4. The higher (P≤ 0.001) empty body weight (19.56 g) was recorded for lambs assigned to T4 diet than T1 followed by T2 and T3 diet. The hot carcass yield of lambs was increased (P≤ 0.01) at 227g wheat bran and 120g lentil screening (T4) supplemented groups than at T1 and T2 diets. The concentrate combination effect was non-significant (P≥ 0.05) on dressing percentage, and proportions of carcass lean, fat and bone. Lambs assigned to T4 diet had higher weight of kidney fat and ureo-genital tract (P≤ 0.01) as well as respiratory tract and blood (P≤0.05) than seen for other treatment categories. Except the dry matter percent of carcass fat (P≤ 0.001), all carcass quality parameters were not affected (P≥ 0.05) by the concentrate diet combinations. The wheat bran and lentil screening combination effect was significant (P≤0.001) on feed cost per kg BWG with a lower value (42.34 Birr) recorded for T4 than 65.80, 51.31 and 42.45 Birr for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Thus, a concentrate supplement diet containing 227g wheat bran and 120g lentil screening can be considered as best for finishing of Menz ram lambs with higher body weight gain, dry matter digestibility, nutrient utilization, carcass yield and lower feed cost per kg weight gain. It could be also concluded that urban and peri-urban sheep production in the study areas offered economical advantages to the producers through sale of sheep and direct use for family consumption. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Carcass en_US
dc.subject combinations en_US
dc.subject constraints en_US
dc.subject digestibility en_US
dc.title SHEEP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN URBAN AND PERI-URBAN AREAS OF DEBRE-BERHAN AND DESSIE, ETHIOPIA, AND PERFORMANCE OF LAMBS FED DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF WHEAT BRAN AND LENTIL SCREENING en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US


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