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Characterization of Dairy Cattle Husbandry Practice and Performance under Smallholder Systems and Analysis of Milk Value Chain and Quality in Bishoftu and Akaki Towns, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

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dc.contributor.advisor Prof. Berhan Tamir, Dr. Gebreyohannes Berhane
dc.contributor.author Dessalegn, Genzebu
dc.date.accessioned 2018-11-29T08:13:06Z
dc.date.available 2018-11-29T08:13:06Z
dc.date.issued 2017-04
dc.identifier.uri http://localhost:80/xmlui/handle/123456789/14672
dc.description A dissertation submitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture of Addis Ababa University for the fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Production en_US
dc.description.abstract The study was conducted from March, 2014 to June, 2016 in Bishoftu and Akaki town’s smallholder dairy farms to investigate the dairy cattle performance, husbandry practice, milk value chain, raw milk quality and major constraints. Totally, 130 randomly selected smallholder farmers from two towns were included in the study. Data were collected through questionnaire, observation, focused group discussion and milk quality analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyze the data. About 74.6% of the respondents used stall feeding and 25.4% stall feeding with limited grazing. Major sources of feeds were natural pasture, crop residue, conserved hay, industrial byproducts and forages. The housing system was permanent enclosure with roofed kraal. For calf feeding, 68.8% of farmers used bucket feeding, 24.2% used partial suckling and 7% used both methods. Shortage of feed (52.3%), inadequate water supply (20.8%), space limitation (4.6%) and diseases (2.3%) were identified as major constraints in both Bishoftu and Akaki smallholder dairy farms. The mean of age at first service, age at first calving, calving interval, daily milk yield, total lactation milk yield and lactation length was 18.7±3.7months, 27.0±3.7months, 13.0±2.1months, and 11.6±3.1liters per d/cow, 3208.56±108.81litres and 276.6±35.1days, respectively in Bishoftu. The mean of age at first service, age at first calving, calving interval, daily milk yield, total lactation milk yield and lactation length was 18.7±3.5 months, 26.9±5.4 months, 13.8±1.9 months and 10.8±2.4 liters per d/cow, 3031.56±46.32 litres and 280.7±19.3 days, respectively in Akaki town. Overall mean of raw milk quality for pH, freezing point, density, added water, acidity, fat, protein, SNF, total solid, lactose and ash contents were 6.66±0.04,- 0.55±0.03, 1.028±0.002, 2.80±3.60, 0.176±0.01, 3.60±0.53, 3.27±0.15, 7.78±0.41, 11.38±0.78, 3.93±0.25 and 0.62±0.05, respectively in the value chain points. The quality of raw milk obtained from the study areas were significantly different (P<0.05) except fat and lactose. Total bacteria count/ml of raw milk from milk producers (MP), milk collectors (MC) and milk processing plants (MPP) were 7.01±1.02 log10 cfu/ml, 7.50±0.51 log10 cfu/ml, and 8.16±0.68 log10 cfu/ml, respectively and it was statistically different (P<0.05). The coliform counts/ml of raw milk found from MP, MC and MPP were 5.66±1.71, 6.81±0.81 and 6.75±0.96 log10 cfu/ml, respectively. The somatic cell count found from MP, MC and MPP were 4.90±2.04, 5.64±0.57 and 5.71±0.55 log10 sc/ml, respectively. Acidity percentage from MP, MC and MPP were 0.176±0.02, 0.175±0.01 and 0.175±0.01, respectively. Value chain actors identified include input suppliers, producers, milk collectors, processors and consumers. About 48.5% farmers deliver their milk to collection centers, 13.1% to hotels, restaurants and cafes, and 12.3% to processing plants, 11.5% to retail shops, (12.3%) neighborhood customers and (2.3%) consume at home. Low milk price, lack of access to adequate markets and lack of infrastructures hindered them from channeling their milk. It can be concluded from this study that crossbred dairy cattle kept by smallholder farmers in Bishoftu and Akaki towns contributes to the household welfare in terms of income generation. To reach a conclusive dairy husbandry practices, value chin and quality analysis estimates, it is recommended to conduct research in multidisciplinary and controlled experiments. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Dairy cattle en_US
dc.subject production systems en_US
dc.subject smallholder farmers en_US
dc.subject milk value chain en_US
dc.title Characterization of Dairy Cattle Husbandry Practice and Performance under Smallholder Systems and Analysis of Milk Value Chain and Quality in Bishoftu and Akaki Towns, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US


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