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EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF TETANUS: A MATCHED CASE CONTROL STUDY AND EVALUATION OF TREATMENT OPTIONS IN EQUINES IN CENTRAL OROMIA, ETHIOPIA

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dc.contributor.advisor Dr. Teshale Sori, Dr. Fufa Abunna
dc.contributor.advisor Dr. Bojia Endebu
dc.contributor.author Zerihun, Asefa
dc.date.accessioned 2018-11-29T07:22:16Z
dc.date.available 2018-11-29T07:22:16Z
dc.date.issued 2017-06
dc.identifier.uri http://localhost:80/xmlui/handle/123456789/14671
dc.description MSC Thesis en_US
dc.description.abstract Although tetanus is considered as an important disease of equines in Ethiopia, little is known about its epidemiology, treatment options and impact on the livelihoods. This epidemiological study was carried out with the main objectives of identification of risk factors, evaluation of efficacy of different treatment options and description of spatiotemporal occurrence and clinical characteristics of the disease. A matched case control study was conducted to identify putative risk factors from cases admitted to the Donkey Sanctuary clinics in Bishoftu and Merkato, at the College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture of Addis Ababa University. The clinical case records of equines diagnosed with tetanus were retrieved between January 2008 and May 2017. For each case two controls were drawn from the same villages that cases were originated from. Matching was done for age and sex. Randomized control trial was used to evaluate the efficacy of procaine penicillin G, metronidazole and combination of both drugs on the survival and improvement in clinical signs. Isolation of Cl. tetani was done from soil samples collected from the animals’ environment. Analysis of medical records of equines diagnosed with tetanus showed that the disease was spatially aggregated in Gerbicha 28.14 % (n=65) and Gicho Gerbabo 16.02 % (n=37) peasant associations of the Ada’a district. Temporally, the cases of tetanus were found to occur during the summer seasons. There was statistically significant association (p<0.05) observed between the presence of wound and survival of equines affected with tetanus. The grade of tetanus at the time of presentation to clinics was also significantly associated with survival. Certain clinical signs (prognostic signs) were significantly associated with survival of equines diagnosed with tetanus. Besides, duration of illness before hospitalization and duration of hospitalization had significant effect (p<0.001) on the survival. The results of matched case control study revealed that the presence of visible wound increases the risk of acquiring tetanus 10.35 times as compared to those animals which didn’t (p < 0.001). Equines with good and moderate body conditions had respectively, 22.27 and 3.51 times higher risk of acquiring tetanus than equines with poor body conditions. The results of experimental study indicated that metronidazole injection caused highest survival (80 %) followed by combination of metronidazole and procaine penicillin G (66.67%) whereas penicillin G alone showed lowest survival (33.33%). Better improvement of clinical signs of tetanus was also observed in donkeys treated with metronidazole than the other treatment groups. The present study showed that tetanus remains an important disease with higher case fatality and highlights a considerable welfare and economic significance in equines. Probable recommendations to limit the risk factors including management, prevention of wound and education of owners are suggested. Furthermore, epidemiological studies with the elucidation of the use of metronidazole are warranted. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Matched Case Control en_US
dc.subject Equine en_US
dc.subject Risk factors en_US
dc.subject Tetanus en_US
dc.title EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF TETANUS: A MATCHED CASE CONTROL STUDY AND EVALUATION OF TREATMENT OPTIONS IN EQUINES IN CENTRAL OROMIA, ETHIOPIA en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US


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