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???metadata.dc.contributor.*???: Dr. Ashenafi Mengistu
Keywords: Egg;feed supplementation
Issue Date: Jan-2017
Abstract: This research consisted of 2 phases experiment. The experiments were conducted at Kalu district between October 2013 and January 2015 to evaluate the productive and reproductive performances of Bovans Brown (BB) and Koekoek (Kk) chicken breeds under 3 seasons (cold season-CS, hot season-HSe and main rainy season-MRS) and 2 feeding regimes-FR (Supplemented-SU and Non-supplemented-NS). Phase I was arranged as a 2x3 (2 breeds and 3 seasons) and Phase II as a 2x2x3 (2 breeds, 2 FR and 3 seasons) factorial arrangement in CRD, having 6 and 4 treatment combinations respectively with 3 replications for each treatment. During phase I, 50 chicks per replicate was reared up to 3-month age; and during phase II, 6 birds per replicate at 3- month age was distributed to 12 household farmers to be maintained up to 15-months age. For phase I: feed intake (FIg/b/d), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR). For phase II: body weight gain (BWG), egg production traits, the effect of breed and FR on GI and reproductive tracts measurements; were measured, fertility and hatchability were assessed, the farmer’s perception on the chicken genotypes was also captured. In addition; mortality, rectal temperature (RTOC), ambient temperature (AT) relative humidity (RH) and rain fall was taken for the two phases. Except the data on farmer’s perception that was analysed by descriptive statistics; SAS, (2002) computer package was used for all the rest dependent variables. The result of Phase I indicated that; BB was more pronounced in FIg/b/d and the Kk breed in ADG, FCR and mortality. Higher ADG and RTOC, and better FCR was recorded during the HSe. BB had higher FIg/b/d in all the seasons. Higher ADG and mortality, better FCR in the MRS; and higher RT in the HSe observed on the Kk breed. The result of Phase II revealed that Kk breed, supplementation main effects and their interactions played a great role in improving BWG. Koekoek, supplemented, HSe birds and their two and three-way interactions were higher in RT. In TCE-Kk and in AEW-BB breeds main effect was more pronounced than the rest of the two and three-way interaction effects. Earlier AOEL was recorded in the main effect supplemented and the interaction effects of BB and Kk breeds due to supplementation. Among the reason of mortality/loss, mortality due to unidentified diseases was higher. The egg type BB was superior in ovary weight, follicle number, weight and length of major parts of the oviduct and important digestive organs. Supplementation stimulated the ovary weight, follicles number, and oviduct weight and length. There was significant (p<0.05) breed effect on hatchability. The farmer`s perception showed that most consumers prefer; brown shell color, small size and, local chicken eggs and local chicken meat. Docile and lack of permanent laying site behaviors were observed in BB, broodiness in Kk, and similar but higher than local chicken feed consumption in both. In conclusion, significant improvement in poultry production is possible through the replacement of existing less productive exotic breeds with a suitable stock that will thrive well under all existing natural hazards in intensive and in the rural free range condition, feed supplementation to scavenging birds following vaccination program against prevalent diseases. The physiological and anatomical changes in terms of digestive and female reproductive systems may be mediating the positive effects of selection of suitable breed and feed supplementation. To meet the increasing demand for commercial chicks in this country; favourable environment, adequate nutrition and a more productive breed of parent stock should be provided. Sensitization campaigns on nutritional quality of eggs and meat, on the behaviour and temperament of exotic chickens is necessary.
Description: A dissertation submitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture of Addis Ababa University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Production
Appears in Collections:Thesis - Tropical Veternery Medicine

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