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Title: The Impacts of Industrialization on Farmer’s Livelihoods, Land Use and the Environment in Ethiopia: The Cases of Gelan and Dukem Towns Diriba Dadi
???metadata.dc.contributor.*???: Ketema Abebe (PhD)
Till Stellmacher (PhD)
Diriba Dadi debela
Feyera Senbeta (PhD)
Keywords: Land use and environment in Ethiopia;Imapact of industrialization on farmer's livehood
Issue Date: Jun-2016
Publisher: Addis Ababa University
Abstract: Industrial expansion and urbanization usually overtake large area of potential or real agricultural lands. The conversion of agricultural land to these systems has impact on the farming households who may lose a part or all of their agricultural land. This dissertation deals with the effects of agricultural land conversion on the livelihoods of farming households, land use as well as on the local environment (surface water quality) in five peri-urban kebeles of Gelan and Dukem towns in central Ethiopia. The objectives of the study were to explore the extents of agricultural lands converted to industrial uses, the processes and procedures involved in the expropriation of the lands and examine the main livelihood strategies adopted by the affected households. As industrialization is often accompanied with pollution, liquid effluents were also characterized to determine the quality of surface water. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to gather socioeconomic data. Data collections tools like focus group discussion, household survey, interviews and observation were employed. On top of this, Land use/Land Cover changes of the study areas were analyzed using satellite images with the help of GIS and Remote sensing software. Water samples were collected from different points following industrial effluent to assess and determine the concentration level of physicochemical and biological pollutants. Most of the quantitative data or inferential statistics such as Ch-square test and t-tests were analyzed using SPSS V. 20, while, MS-Excel was also used to draw bar graphs and line charts to study the trends and patterns of a few variables Qualitative data were analyzed qualitatively through the employment of content and context analysis. The analysis and discussion of quantitative and qualitative data were done by triangulating results to either supplement the result or verify qualitative responses and/or quantitative results. The results of the quantitative and qualitative data for the socioeconomic parts reveals that, the processes of rapid industrial expansion has caused an extensive Agricultural Land Conversion (ALC) that has seriously affected the livelihoods smallholder farmers through reducing farmland size and ownership which lead to the inability of the households to produce enough food for household consumption and increased landless households since the launching of the industrialization program in the area since 2004/5. Similarly, the processes and procedures implemented by the government lacks transparency at all stages of land expropriation in which local people were neither consulted nor allowed to take part in the development planning and the valuation and estimation of compensation which lead to deep grievances among the affected households for the inadequacy of the compensation amount. In contrast with government policies and community expectations, most converted lands are underdeveloped and demonstrating leapfrog sprawling in which the prospect of benefiting from employment opportunity remains slim. Furthermore, the educational levels and working skills of farm household are generally low, which makes it difficult for them to find new stable employment opportunities outside the agricultural sector. As a result, local communities are developing antagonistic view against the development of Industrial Zones and consider it as „exo-genic‟ and of little or no importance for their livelihoods. Most of the affected households still prefer to earn limited livelihood income from agricultural activities. The sampled effluents reveals the presence of some pollutants in high concentration that can affect the quality of surface water, health of the residents and their livestock mainly in the kebeles not supplied with potable water. Based on the study results, the researcher therefore recommend for the responsible governmental body to re-examine the actual implementation of the legal investment procedures, and re-adjust them in a way that allows the development of IZs in a more efficient and rational manner and with a much lower consumption of land resources. This would also mean to give priority to developing already converted lands instead of looking for new farmlands, so as not to further affect the livelihoods of many more farming households. There is also a need to assist (ex-) farmers who had lost (parts or all of) their land due to industrialization, and to help them to develop abilities and capacities to cope with the new situation.
Appears in Collections:Thesis - Environmental Planning and Landscape Design

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BN 1D1.pdfThis is to certify that the thesis prepared by Diriba Dadi Debela entitled ―The impacts of industrialization on farmer‟s livelihoods, land use and the environment in Ethiopia: The cases of Gelan and Dukem towns” submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Planning complies with the regulations of the university and meets the accepted standards with respect to originality and quality. 4.12 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
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