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Title: Toxicological Study of Glinus lotoides and Hagenia abyssinica: Traditionally used Taenicidal Herbs in Ethiopia
Authors: Demma, Jemal
Advisors: Dr. Ephrem Engidawork
Keywords: Glinus lotoides
Hagenia abyssinica
single dose toxicity
repeated dose toxicity
Copyright: 2005
Date Added: 24-Apr-2008
Publisher: Addis Ababa University
Abstract: Seeds of Glinus lotoides, Linne (Molluginocea) and flowers of Hagenia abyssinica Gmel, (Rosaceae) are used traditionally in the treatement of tapeworm infestion in Ethiopia. Previous studies on anthelmintic activities of both plants have confirmed their traditional claims. However, their detailed toxicities were not yet conducted. In these studies, single and repeated dose oral toxicity studies in rats were conducted using methanolic extracts of seeds of Glinus lotoides and aqueous extracts flowers of Hagenia abyssinica. Doses of 0, 1000 and 5000 mg/kg of crude extract of Glinus lotoides were employed in single dose toxicity study while doses of 0. 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg were used in repeated dose toxicity studies. In the single dose toxicity test, oral administration of 5000 mg/kg of Glinus lotoides produced mortality in two females and one male on day 4. No significant differences in body and organ weight between controls and treated animals were observed in survived animals at both dose levels. Therefore LD50 of the extract might be greater than or equal to 5000 mg/kg. Moreover, both gross and microscopic examinations of organs did not show detectable differences between controls and treated animals of both sexes. In repeated dose toxicity studies, no mortality was observed when these varying doses of the extracts were administered per day for a period of 28 days. There were no significant differences in the body weight, absolute and relative organ weights between controls and treated animals of both sexes. Hematological analysis showed no differences in most parameters examined. In the clinical chemistry analysis, no significant change occurred. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. Therefore, the NOEL could be greater than or equal to 1000 mg/kg in rats and none of the organs are considered target during both single and repeated studies. The aqueous flower extracts of Hagenia abyssinica was tested for its single and repeated dose toxic effect on rats of both sex. Studies at 5000 mg/kg (limit test) and at three dose levels (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg) for the main study were conducted orally on 5 rats per sex per dose with concurrent control receiving distilled water in single dose study. No toxic sings were noted at all dose levels and there were no significant differences in mean body weights of the treated group compared to control. Therefore, LD50 of the extract is greater than 5000 mg/kg. In repeated dose studies, three doses of the extract (350, 750, and 1500 mg/kg) were administered orally to 5 rats per dose per sex for 28 days and various toxicologic indices tested. Cage side observation, body weight, biochemical and morphologic pathology observation did not show significant differences across the group. Therefore, none of the organs have shown to be the target; Hagenia abyssinica is safe in rats at all doses studied and the NOEL could be greater than or equal to 1500 mg/kg in rats.
Description: A Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies of Addis Ababa University In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Toxicology
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/950
Appears in:Thesis - Toxicology

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