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Title: GENDER BASED VIOLENCE AND THE RISK OF HIV INFECTION AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CARE SERVICE AT HIV SENTINEL SURVAILANCE SITES IN ADDIS ABABA
Authors: Workeneh, Demisse
Advisors: Dr. Assefa Seme
Copyright: 2007
Date Added: 21-Apr-2008
Publisher: Addis Ababa University
Abstract: ABSTRACT Introduction In many African countries, sex ratios of new HIV infections are highly skewed to females because of biological susceptibility and also gender-based violence is increasingly cited as important determinant of women’s HIV risk; yet empirical research on possible connections remains limited. Objective This research was conducted to measure the prevalence of gender-based violence, explore the association between gender-based violence and HIV risk behaviors & HIV infection among women attending antenatal care service in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross–sectional study of 840 women presenting for antenatal care at five health centers, which are national HIV sentinel surveillance sites in Addis Ababa, who accepted routine antenatal HIV testing for PMTCT purpose was conducted between January and March 2007. Private face to face interview were done in local languages and included assessment of sociodemographic characteristics, experience of gender based violence, HIV risk behaviors including multiple and casual male partners, transactional sex, and regular use of condom by casual male partners and linked to HIV sero status. Result About 44% of the total 840 women interviewed reported physical or sexual violence at some point during their lives and lifetime experience of different types of intimate partner violence were significantly associated with increased odds of participation in HIV risk behaviors (having 4 or more male partners in life time, having sexual intercourse with non primary ever, experience of transactional sex ever, not regular use of condom with non regular partners, and substance use with problems). Any lifetime experience of sexual violence was significantly associated with increased odds of HIV sero positivity, even after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics (educational status, current non professional employment and relationship with intimate partner) and HIV risk behaviors, OR=2.95 (1.33, 6.39). Similarly broad IPV was significantly associated with increased odds of HIV sero positivity after adjustment of sociodemographic variables and participation in HIV risk behaviors, OR= 2.68 (1.10, 6.54). Women who reported child sexual assault, adult sexual assault and forced first intercourse by non-partners reported higher levels of HIV risk behavior than those who did not; and the later two were significantly associated with increased odds of HIV sero positivity. Experience of adult sexual assault by non-partners at age 15 and after is independently associated with increased odds of HIV sero positivity. Conclusion and Recommendation The study result showed us that even though biological susceptibility can make women at higher risk of HIV infection than men, they are also at increased risk of acquiring HIV infection because of their violence induced HIV risk behaviors and from HIV infected abusive male partners. Therefore intervention effort in HIV prevention need to target male sexual risk taking, condom refusal, and violent behavior, as well as working towards transformation of broader societal structures, which support female subordination and hinder women’s socioeconomic Empowerment.
Description: A thesis submitted to School of graduate studies of Addis Ababa University, Medical Faculty, Department of Community Health in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Public Health.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/736
Appears in:Thesis - Public Health

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