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|Title: ||A STUDYOF CAUSES OF TEACHER ATTRITION IN SELECTED REGIONS OF ETHIOPIA|
|Authors: ||BEFEKADU, GEBRETSADIK|
|Advisors: ||Ato Ayaiew Shibeshi,|
|Keywords: ||TEACHER ATTRITION|
|Copyright: ||May-2001 |
|Date Added: ||21-Nov-2012 |
|Abstract: ||This study was aimed at investigating the pressing issue of the reasons why teachers leave
the teaching profession and the factors that contributed to or aggravated the exodus from
teaching. It was also intended to identify preventive strategies to reduce attrition and
increase teacher retention.
To conduct the study, a descriptive survey was employed. For this purpose, the study was
conducted in four sample regions of Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Afar, Amhara and Oromia.
From these regions samples were taken from 12 Zones, 20 Weredas, 46 Primary and 12
Secondary Schools. Randomly selected samples of practicing teachers (N = 884) of former
teachers (N= 282) from primary and secondary schools and of prospective teachers
(N=162) FOIll eight teacher education institutions were involved in filling questionnaires to
provide first hand information. Interviews and focus group discussions were carried out
with education officials from REBs, ZEDs, WEDs and incumbent school principals and
teachers. In addition, various documents and personal observations and experiences were
used as instruments to collect data. Data analysis was made by using statistical tools such
as percentage. mean, Chi-square, rank order correlation coefficient and t-test to identify
whether there were differences and agreements among the respondents on several variables.
The study revealed that average teacher attrition rate per annum in the three years period
(1996/97-1998/99) for the four Sampled Regions was about 3%, the highest (7.4%) in Afar
Region (a peripheral region), and the lowest (1.3%) in Addis Ababa (an urban region). Over
a similar period, among the teachers with certificate, diploma and degree holders about 1%,
5% and 8% of them respectively left the profession annually. Annual rate of attrition for
primary school teachers found to be about 1% , in contrast to the rate of attrition of
secondary school teachers that reached 5.3%. The failure of 'new graduates to turn-up
before starting the profession also aggravated attrition. Within the three years period
(1996/97 - 2000/01) among the new graduates 14.1% of diploma and 19.1% of degree
holders failed to report to Afar, Amhara and Oromia regions collectively.
Former teachers left their jobs mainly for the reasons which are in rank order: the low
social prestige accorded to teaching by the society at large, low economic and financial
benefits, lack of transfer, unfavourable working conditions within schools, administrative
problems, lack of professional career development. difficulties of living conditions,
overloaded work, limited chance forfurther education and lack of instructional support.
The study also revealed that the majority of former and practicing teachers lacked initial
commitment to teaching. Substantial number of practicing teachers disclosed that they
would not prefer to stay in teaching. The majority of prospective teachers in the degree
programme joined teacher education programme without being interested.
The new career structure and salary scale has failed to bring about the intended purpose of
retaining teachers as they left the profession at a significant rate. Almost all practicing
teachers disclosed that the career structure lacked the power to motivate teachers.
Finally, the study discusses the consequences as result of teacher attrition and suggestions
are forwarded for how policy decision-makers in the MOE, REB, ZED, WED as well as in
schools and communities, can help reduce attrition, enhance retention and attract the best
recruits to teacher education programmes.|
|Appears in:||Thesis - Educational Planning & Management|
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