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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/3673

Title: CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF BRAIN DRAIN IN HIGHER LEARNING INSTITUTIONS OF ETHIOPIA
Authors: KEFYALEW, AYANO
Advisors: Prof. Seyoum Teferra
Copyright: Jun-2011
Date Added: 6-Nov-2012
Abstract: According to the study conducted in the area of brain drain in 1992, from 301academic staff sent abroad for education it was a meagre number (22) that had returned to the home country. The assumption of this study is thus, when highly qualified and experienced academicians leave higher institutions and go to other sectors within a country or abroad, replacing these professionals becomes highly a formidable task and also can weaken the capacity of higher institutions. The major purpose of this study is to identify the major causes and effects of brain drain in higher learning institutions of Ethiopia. In doing so the study tested five hypotheses. In test the hypotheses; primary data were collected for analysis from sample of six higher learning institutions through questionnaire, interview and document analysis. The sample higher institutions were purposively selected by taking into account the degree of seriousness of brain drain in the selected institutions. The ex-academics were also chosen based on availability sampling technique. Descriptive research method was employed. The result of the study has shown that poor salary, lack of incentives and benefits, inefficient management, poor working conditions and facilities, political instability, absence of opportunity for further education and attractive factors in other organizations are the major causes for 398 brain drains from 1991to 2000 academic years within the country. The nonreturnees represent 63.3 percent of those who went abroad during the same period. It was found out that non-returnees were also higher for females than males. And yet there are high potentials of brain drains in the higher learning institutions. In order to replace the brain drains higher learning institutions have employed 162 expatriate teaching staff with estimated salary of 2,916,000 US dollar. In the same year AAU has also employed 215 parttimers. As a result, the conditions under which higher learning institutions of Ethiopia operate at present are very shocking and seem beyond repairing. From these results it can be concluded that: 1) unless the causes of brain drain are addressed, brain drain will continue to persist; 2) if current trends of brain drain from higher learning institutions continue unchanged, there will be a crisis in the coming years; 3) the higher the experience and academic profile, the longer the time to replace the academic staff in higher IX learning institutions; 4) the higher the internal brain drain, the lower the capacity of higher institutions whereas the higher external brain drain the higher the damaging effect on growth and development of the country; 5) to this end, brain drain is the function of discouraging as well as attractive factors. Also it seems that the introduction of new free market economy and vacancies m these sectors have attracted the professional skills from higher learning institutions. The mam policy intervention measures recommended include: 1) some higher learning institutions of the country should be enhanced to produce qualified manpower up to PhD level in various fields; 2) there should be staff fellowship development after senior academics in every subject to substitute them; 3) the salary scale of academics should take into account the skill needed for that profession, workload, periodically adjusted to rising cost of market and be de linked from civil servant salary scale 4) to supplement the salary of academics higher learning institutions should create and mobilize alternative income generating and sharing mechanisms through production and marketing of publications, training manuals, and provision of consultancy services; 5) higher learning institutions should be attractive, autonomous and get discretionary power to elect their officials. As a final note, computerized and systematically organized, detailed data on the career of academic staff in higher learning institutions should be developed. x
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/3673
Appears in:Thesis - Educational Leadership & Management

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