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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/3389

Authors: Yaekob, Kebede
Advisors: Mekibib Dawit(Dr.)
Copyright: Jun-2011
Date Added: 17-Jul-2012
Publisher: Addis Ababa University
Abstract: The dwindling resources of fossil fuels coupled with the steady increase in energy consumption have encouraged research interest in alternative and renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternatives for fossil fuels. To foster market competitiveness for biodiesel, it is necessary to produce biodiesel from economically viable and environmentally sound feedstocks. In this study the availability and feasibility of converting WCO to biodiesel fuel has been studied. It was found that about 536,500 liters of waste oil could be generated as a waste from the assessed food service establishments in Addis Ababa annually. This waste oil is usually poured into the sewer system of the city or disposed to a landfill sites resulting in contamination of water and land resources. This environmental problem could be solved by utilizing used cooking oil to produce cleaner biodiesel fuel. In this work, biodiesel (methyl ester) was prepared from a sample of waste cooking oil collected from local restaurants. Methyl alcohol with potassium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. Results obtained indicated that waste cooking vegetable oil was efficiently converted to biodiesel using a single step alkaline transesterfication process with 88.5% conversion yield. Biodiesel’s physical and chemical fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, water and sediment content, iodine value, calorific value, and ash content were determined according to ASTM test methods. All of the results are within the range of the ASTM biodiesel standard specifications with the exception of the kinematic viscosity, which slightly deviates from the standard requirement. Blending with petrodiesel or biodiesel having low viscosity can easily improve this property. Although the overall availability of waste cooking oil is limited, production of biodiesel from this feedstock for diesel substitute is particularly important because of its added benefit of recycling waste products, the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products.
Description: A Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies of Addis Ababa University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Environmental Science
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/3389
Appears in:Thesis - Environmental Sciences

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