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Title: Total Dietary Fluoride Intake and Its Observed Health Effect in Young Children: Case of Bidara Fuka and Dibibisa Kebeles in SNNPR and Oromia Regions; Ethiopian Rift Valley
Authors: Tesfaw, Ashagrie
Advisors: Feleke Zewge(Dr.)
Wondwossen Fantaye(Dr.)
Keywords: Ethiopian Rift Valley
daily fluoride intake
fluoride
fluorosis
ground water
Copyright: Jun-2011
Date Added: 17-Jul-2012
Publisher: Addis Ababa University
Abstract: Dental as well as skeletal fluorosis is endemic in the region of Ethiopian Rift Valley, and the maximum prevalence of fluorosis was observed on children at the age of 10 to 14 years. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the daily dietary fluoride intake of 10 to 15 years old children living in Bidara Fuka and Dibibisa Kebeles of SNNPR and Oromia Regions, a rural part of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Taking the daily dietary intake variation in to account, three consecutive days of twenty four hour duplicate portions of food samples were collected and analyzed for fluoride by using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. Based upon the analysis of 306 prepared food, beverages and water samples; the average daily dietary fluoride intakes of children residing in the two Kebeles were determined. In Bidara Fuka and Dibibisa Kebeles, the study participants had mean dietary fluoride intakes of 9.29 mg/day (0.310 mg/kg body weight) and 7.71 mg/day (0.256 mg/kg body weight), respectively. The data indicated that, in all cases the average daily dietary fluoride intakes of children exceed the optimum (0.05-0.07 mg/kg bw /day) and maximum (0.08 or 0.1 mg/kg bw/day), threshold values of dietary fluoride intake recommended by CDA, COT, US EPA and other toxicological studies. The contribution of food for daily fluoride intake was also as important as drinking water, which is 49.6% and 53% in Bidara Fuka and Dibibisa Kebeles, respectively. The drinking water source in Bidara Fuka and Dibibisa is only one single deep well with a service years of 31 and 24, respectively. Fluoride concentrations in groundwater samples of Bidara Fuka and Dibibisa Kebeles were 4.19 and 3.16 mg/L, respectively. This is much beyond the WHO permissible limit of 1.5 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was evaluated using Dean’s Index; that considers fluorosis as severe when there is pronounced staining and/or pitting of the enamel. In Bidara Fuka 66% of the individuals showed signs of moderate and severe dental fluorosis. On the other hand, 54% of the individuals were listed as having moderate and severe dental fluorosis in Dibibisa Kebele. The study participants in the two Kebeles had 98% of very mild to severe dental fluorosis. Furthermore, physical exercises method developed in India was employed for the assessment of prevalence of bone fluorosis. Accordingly, 69% and 27% of the study participants in Bidara Fuka and Dibibisa Kebeles were unable to do one or both of the physical exercises, indicating signs of skeletal fluorosis. On the whole, the study result revealed that prevalence of fluorosis in both Kebeles at such early age group was high, the fact consistent to the higher hazard quotient values of 3.10 and 2.56 obtained in Bidara Fuka and Dibibisa Kebeles, respectively.
Description: Thesis Submitted to School of Graduate Studies, Addis Ababa University, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Attainment of the Degree of Masters of Science in Environmental Science
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/3384
Appears in:Thesis - Environmental Sciences

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