AAU-ETD AAU-ETD
 

Addis Ababa University Libraries Electronic Thesis and Dissertations: AAU-ETD! >
Faculty of Medicine >
Thesis - Pharmacology  >

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/3074

Title: IN VIVO ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ROOT EXTRACTS AND FRACTIONS OF CLERODENDRUM MYRICOIDES IN PLASMODIUM BERGHEI INFECTED MICE
Authors: TIGIST, BELAY
Advisors: Prof. Eyasu Makonnen
Keywords: PHARMACOLOGY
Copyright: Jun-2008
Date Added: 16-May-2012
Publisher: ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY
Abstract: Malaria is one of the six infectious diseases that account for half of all premature deaths; and for over 40% of the world's population from more than 90 countries living with the risk of the disease. Plants are essential sources for the battle against it. C. myricoides is found in different parts of Ethiopia and its vernacular name is ‘misiritch’ in Amharic. It is traditionally used in Ethiopia for different purposes such as treatment of gonorrhea, colic, gout, swelling, measles, gland TB, eye diseases, malaria, rabies, as wound dressing and as aphrodisiac.The present study therefore attempted to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the root extracts of C. myricoides in mice infected with P. berghei and to determine LD50 and phytochemical screening. In this study, phytochemical screening has been done using standard methods. 4-days peter’s test was used to determine parasite inhibition, PCV was determinied by Wintrob’s method, effects against loss of body weight, effect on reduction in temperature and improvement on survival time were determined. LD50s of the crude extracts have been also done. The crude aqueous, crude hydroalcoholic, dichloromethane fraction of crude aqueous, butanol fraction of crude hydroalcoholic extracts of the roots of C.myricoides significantly (P<0.05) inhibited parasitemia of malaria. These parasitemia suppression observed was comparable to that observed with Solanum indicum leaves.The activity is due to components in the plant which might have retarded the multiplication of the parasites in the blood. The crude aqueous, crude hydroalcoholic, dichloromethane fraction of aqueous, butanol fraction both crude aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the roots of C.myricoides prevented weight loss (P≥05)especially at high doses. This also occurs for plants like Withania somnifera. No weight gain was observed which may be due to the presence of compounds with appetite suppressing effect. The crude aqueous,crude hydroalcoholic, dichloromethane fraction of aqueous, butanol fraction of crude hydroalcoholic and chloroform fraction of crude hydroalcoholic extracts (P≥05) of roots of C.myricoides prevented reduction in PCV. The parasites caused destruction of red blood cells leading to reduction in PCV. The prevention in reduction of PCV may be due to the compounds in the extracts. The crude aqueous and crude hydroalcoholic extracts improved((P≥05)survival time. xi From this study, it can be observed that the crude aqueous extract, crude hydroalcoholic extract, dichloromethane fraction of crude aqueous extract and butanol fraction of crude hydroalcoholic extract has reduced parasitemia, prevents loss of body weight, protects against PCV reduction and improved mean survival time. Chloroquine (10mg/kg) has shown 100% parasitemia inhibition and all other parameters measured in mice returned to normal. In this study, the crude extracts showed better antimalarial activity than the fractions since different compounds may be found which have synergistic effect and some secondary metabolites protect other metabolites (as antioxidants) and break of this association can accelerate degradation. In this study, alkaloids and saponins have been detected which might be responsible for the antimalarial activity. The hydroalcoholic crude extract likely to contain flavonoids, whitanides and phytosterols while polypenols , saponins ,tannins and alkaloids are likely to be present in the crude aqueous extract. Thus the synergistic activity observed in the crude extracts and the activity in the fractions may be due to these compounds. The oral LD50 of the crude aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts were 1134.42mg/kg and 1629.99mg/kg, respectively. From the present study, it can be concluded that crude aqueous extract, crude hydroalcoholic extracts, of roots of C.myricoides have antimalarial activity at much lower doses than the LD50s hinting the safe and efficacious nature of the plant. The dichloromethane fraction of crude aqueous extract and butanol fraction of crude hydroalcoholic extract also have antimalarial effect. Further fractionation was also not possible due to low yield.Thus, the active ingredients should be isolated by different extraction methods.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/3074
Appears in:Thesis - Pharmacology

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
40280796952623795845703574741501445955657.93 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in the AAUL Digital Library are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

  Last updated: May 2010. Copyright © Addis Ababa University Libraries - Feedback