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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/2908

Advisors: Prof. Yekoye Abebe
Keywords: Respiratory symptoms
Lung function parameters
Carbon monoxide
Indoor air pollution
Copyright: May-2011
Date Added: 10-May-2012
Publisher: AAU
Abstract: Poor households in Ethiopia depend heavily on wood, dung, and other biomass fuels for cooking. Inhalation of pollutants from these fuels may cause deleterious effects on health. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to indoor air pollution from the use of biofuels on lung functions and respiratory symptoms in women. The study was conducted at Gondar town (kebele16) 750 kilometers from Addis Ababa between June and August 2010. A total of 285 women (200 biomass fuel users, 85 non users) between ages 18 and 59 years (mean age 29.7±9.14 for biomass users and 30.83±11.07 for controls) were selected by multistage cluster sampling technique. All selected subjects were non-smokers and used to cook 3-4 hr/ day regularly. Those who cook in open air without kitchen and smokers were excluded from the study. A closed end respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered by a trained laboratory technician at the house where the study participants were cooking. The questionnaire included history of smoking in the family, type of cooking fuel used, and duration of cooking and respiratory symptoms experienced, frequency of the signs and symptoms, past illness, etc . All Participants' height and weight were measured in light clothing and with their shoes removed. Height was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm using a standard meter while weight was measured to the nearest 100 g using Salter scales. Lung function tests (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the one second (FEV1) of each woman were measured by using a Spiro Pro spirometer and peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) by Wright peak flow meter. Each subject was instructed to sit and practice with the instrument, to place the mouthpiece in the mouth keeping the nose closed, to make a maximal inspiratory effort, and to blow out with a maximal effort. The test was repeated five times after adequate rest, and results were obtained from the spirometer. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were derived from best spirogram recorded. Three peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) readings were recorded using Wright peak flow meter and the maximum record was used. FEV1% (FVC/FEV1Χ 100) and individual predictive values based on age, sex, body weight, standing height were calculated by using predicted formula. The Carbon monoxide (CO) level used to assess indoor air pollution from biomass fuels was measured in each kitchen while cooking by using digital CO meter Metavico/09 as per instruction on the manual and the effect of this pollution on the women’s respiratory function was analyzed. The prevalence of wheeze (OR=8.11), phlegm (OR=17.1), bronchitis (OR=2.08) and asthma (OR=7.01) were significantly higher in the exposed groups relative to the no-exposure group. The mean measured value of ventilatory capacity FVC (2.20± 0.89 for biomass users and 2.62±0 .89 for controls, p=0.0004); FEV1 (1.67±0 .77 for biomass users and 2.24± 0.82 for controls, p=0.0002) and PEFR (181.45± 72.14 for biomass users and 243.52±98.13 for controls, p=0.0003) were found to be significantly reduced in exposed group compared with controls and predicted values. Mean indoor CO level (238± 40 ppm) were higher than Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) exposure limit (101-200 ppm) and negatively correlated with reduction in the mean lung function parameters. It is concluded that indoor air pollution had deleterious effect on the respiratory function of women. The study recommends that better ventilated houses with windows, separate kitchens be used and that exposure level may be limited by using improved stoves rather than the usual 3-stone-fire stove and that there must be intervention that educates women about behavioral possibilities to reduce the exposure for themselves and their children to cooking fire. VII
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/2908
Appears in:Thesis - Medical Physiology

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