Addis Ababa University Libraries Electronic Thesis and Dissertations: AAU-ETD! >
Faculty of Medicine >
Thesis - Medical Physiology >
Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title: ||EFFECTS OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION BY BIOMASS FUELS ON RESPIRATORY FUNCTIONS IN GONDAR, ETHIOPIA|
|Authors: ||TIGIST, KENA|
|Advisors: ||Prof. Yekoye Abebe|
|Keywords: ||Respiratory symptoms|
Lung function parameters
Indoor air pollution
|Copyright: ||May-2011 |
|Date Added: ||10-May-2012 |
|Abstract: ||Poor households in Ethiopia depend heavily on wood, dung, and other biomass fuels for
cooking. Inhalation of pollutants from these fuels may cause deleterious effects on health. The
objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to indoor air pollution from the
use of biofuels on lung functions and respiratory symptoms in women.
The study was conducted at Gondar town (kebele16) 750 kilometers from Addis Ababa between
June and August 2010. A total of 285 women (200 biomass fuel users, 85 non users) between
ages 18 and 59 years (mean age 29.7±9.14 for biomass users and 30.83±11.07 for controls)
were selected by multistage cluster sampling technique. All selected subjects were non-smokers
and used to cook 3-4 hr/ day regularly. Those who cook in open air without kitchen and smokers
were excluded from the study. A closed end respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered
by a trained laboratory technician at the house where the study participants were cooking. The
questionnaire included history of smoking in the family, type of cooking fuel used, and duration
of cooking and respiratory symptoms experienced, frequency of the signs and symptoms, past
illness, etc .
All Participants' height and weight were measured in light clothing and with their shoes
removed. Height was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm using a standard meter while weight was
measured to the nearest 100 g using Salter scales. Lung function tests (forced vital capacity
(FVC), forced expiratory volume in the one second (FEV1) of each woman were measured by
using a Spiro Pro spirometer and peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) by Wright peak flow meter.
Each subject was instructed to sit and practice with the instrument, to place the mouthpiece in
the mouth keeping the nose closed, to make a maximal inspiratory effort, and to blow out with a
maximal effort. The test was repeated five times after adequate rest, and results were obtained
from the spirometer. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second
(FEV1) were derived from best spirogram recorded. Three peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)
readings were recorded using Wright peak flow meter and the maximum record was used.
FEV1% (FVC/FEV1Χ 100) and individual predictive values based on age, sex, body weight,
standing height were calculated by using predicted formula. The Carbon monoxide (CO) level
used to assess indoor air pollution from biomass fuels was measured in each kitchen while
cooking by using digital CO meter Metavico/09 as per instruction on the manual and the effect of
this pollution on the women’s respiratory function was analyzed.
The prevalence of wheeze (OR=8.11), phlegm (OR=17.1), bronchitis (OR=2.08) and asthma
(OR=7.01) were significantly higher in the exposed groups relative to the no-exposure group.
The mean measured value of ventilatory capacity FVC (2.20± 0.89 for biomass users and 2.62±0
.89 for controls, p=0.0004); FEV1 (1.67±0 .77 for biomass users and 2.24± 0.82 for controls,
p=0.0002) and PEFR (181.45± 72.14 for biomass users and 243.52±98.13 for controls,
p=0.0003) were found to be significantly reduced in exposed group compared with controls and
predicted values. Mean indoor CO level (238± 40 ppm) were higher than Occupational Safety
and Health Administration (OSHA) exposure limit (101-200 ppm) and negatively correlated with
reduction in the mean lung function parameters. It is concluded that indoor air pollution had
deleterious effect on the respiratory function of women. The study recommends that better
ventilated houses with windows, separate kitchens be used and that exposure level may be
limited by using improved stoves rather than the usual 3-stone-fire stove and that there must be
intervention that educates women about behavioral possibilities to reduce the exposure for
themselves and their children to cooking fire.
|Appears in:||Thesis - Medical Physiology|
Files in This Item:
|16||356.2 kB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
Items in the AAUL Digital Library are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.