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Title: Isolation and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Shigella and Campylobacter from Acute Enteric Infections in Yekatit 12 Hospital and Shiromeda Health center, Addis Ababa
Authors: Getnet, Worku
Advisors: Ato Tamrat Abebe (PhD candidate, Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Parasitology Addis Ababa University )
Keywords: Antibiotic Susceptibility
Acute Enteric Infections
Copyright: Jun-2011
Date Added: 7-May-2012
Publisher: Dr. Adane Mihret (PhD candidate, Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Parasitology Addis Ababa University)
Abstract: Background -Acute infective diarrhoea and gastroenteritis are major causes of ill health and premature death in developing world due, in large part, to the lack of safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene, as well as poorer overall health and nutritional status. Among the leading causes of infectious diarrhoea, Campylobacter and Shigella contribute a lot. Antimicrobial resistance has developed among many of the major diarrheal bacterial pathogens and complicated the selection of antibiotics for the treatment of enteric bacterial pathogens, particularly to commonly used antimicrobial agents such as ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole. Objective - To isolate and determine antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Shigella, and Campylobacter from acute enteric infections in Addis Ababa Method - A cross sectional study was conducted from December 2010 to March 2011 at Shiromeda health center (n=254) and Yekatit 12 Hospital (n=140). All diarrheal stool specimens were cultured for isolation of Shigella and Campylobacter species. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for culture isolates according to the method of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) by disk diffusion method. Result – A total of 163 enteropathogens were isolated from 394 patients that had acute diarrhea. The isolates were 37 (9.4%) Shigella species, 19 (4.8%) Campylobacter species, 23 (5.8%) Salmonella species and 84 (21.3%) parasites. 192 (48.7%) of the patients were females and 202 (51.3%) were males making the female to male ratio 1:1.05. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for 37 strains of Shigella isolates showed 67.6% resistance to ampicillin followed by, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (64.7%), and chloramphenicol (40.5%). More than 90% of the strains were sensitive to nalidixic acid ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and polymyxin B. Multiple resistances (resistant to two or more drugs) were observed in 23 (62.1%) of the isolates. All Campylobacter spp. were susceptible to chloramphenicol and showed low resistance rates (<60%) against, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and erythromycin. Conclusion- the results of the present study showed the high prevalence for Shigella spp. while Campylobacter spp. showed a moderate one. Continuous surveillance of the prevalence and VIII antibiotic susceptibility pattern of diarrheal bacteria in hospitals and in the community is needed which should be the basis for empiric therapy.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/2776
Appears in:Thesis - Medical Microbiology

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