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|Title: ||Bacterial Meningitis: a five year retrospective study among patients who had attended at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital|
|Authors: ||Birehanemeskel, Tegene|
|Advisors: ||Dr. Solomon Gebreselassie|
|Keywords: ||bacterial meningitis|
antimicrobial susceptibility and pyogenic meningitis
|Copyright: ||Mar-2011 |
|Date Added: ||1-May-2012 |
|Abstract: ||Background: Bacterial meningitis is one of the most serious infectious diseases. The most frequent
causes of meningitis are Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus
influenzae. The infection usually associated with a high rate of complications. Data on the recent
relative magnitude of the bacterial isolation and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns is insufficient
Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine etiological agents of bacterial meningitis at
University of Gondar Teaching Hospital and assess their antibiotic susceptible pattern during last 5
Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of three thousand and eighty five cerebrospinal fluid
specimens submitted to the bacteriology laboratory of Gondar University Hospital for culture and
antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a period between January 2006 and December 2010. The study
was done from November 1, to December 31, 2010.
Results: For this retrospective study data were obtain from 1589 males and 1496 females making
male to female ratio 1.06:1 of suspected cases of meningitis in Gondar University Hospital. The
etiological agent had been identified in 120 (3.8%) of the total 3085 CSF samples by culture. Thirty-
nine (32.5%) of them were infants below the age of 12 months. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the
predominant pathogen accounting for 52 (43.3%) of the cases. Whereas Neisseria meningitidis and
Haemophilus influenzae accounted for 27(22.5%), and 12(10%) respectively. Other gram negative
bacilli and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 21(17.2%), and 11(9.2%) cases respectively.
Among gram positive organisms S.pneumoniae showed a high level of drug resistance against co-
trimoxazole 44(84.3%), tetracycline 17(32.6%), gentamicin 10(19.2%) chloraphinicol 4(7.6%) and
ampicillin 3(5.7%). Among gram negative bacteria, N.meningitidis was found to be resistant to Co-
trimoxazole in 25(92.5%), Chloraphinicol 2(7.5%), Gentamicin 4(14.8%) and Ampicillin 4(14.8%).
E. coli and salmonella spp. were found to be resistant to most antibiotics except ciprofloxacin. Both
S. Pneumoniae (7.6%) and S. aureus (18.1%) were found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin. Multiple
drug resistance was observed in 58.3% of the isolates.
Conclusions and recommendation: Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the major aetiological
agent of Community Acquired Acute Bacterial Meningitis (CAABM) both in adults and children in
the study area. 5.7% of Streptococcus pneumoniae were resistances to penicillin. Further research
should focus on preventable aspects CAABM of, especially pneumococcal vaccines, to reduce the
|Appears in:||Thesis - Medical Parasitology|
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