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|Title: ||TECHNICAL, ECONOMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FUEL OIL WITH COAL AS ENERGY SOURCE IN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY|
|Authors: ||Biniam, Taddele|
|Advisors: ||Dr. Nebyeleul Gessese,Dr. Tassisa Kaba|
|Copyright: ||2008 |
|Date Added: ||4-Feb-2009 |
|Publisher: ||Addis Ababa University|
The production process of cement clinker is energy-intensive and requires a
large amount of fuel. All the Ethiopian cement industries use heavy fuel oil as
energy resource in the production cement. Currently the three operational
cement factories produce 1.5 per annum which way down the demand that stood
over 6.2 million tonnees a year. It is estimated that about 35-40 millions of
dollars is spent for heavy fuel oil in for cement sectors only.
In this study it is shown that for Messebo Cement Factory (MCF), the cost of
fuel oil per tonne of clinker sharply escalated from Birr 180, prevailing in the
year 2003 to Birr 345 in the year 2007. This has made it difficult for Ethiopian
Cement Factory to compute and survive in the market. All over the world
cement factories are switching over from fuel oil or gas to coal for their kiln
operation since coal is considered as an alternative cheaper fuel than fuel oil.
Ethiopia has discovered large potential low grade coals at different areas.
Realizing this situation, a good deposit of coal suitable for use as fuel in the
cement kiln has been found at Dilbi-Moye near Jimma. However, introduction
of coal as a source of energy in the cement production has its own challenges.
This paper examines technical, economical and environmental comparative
analysis of fuel oil with coal as energy sources application in cement
Result from the technical analysis shown that of Dilbi coal quality reveled the
possibility of using indigenous coal in place of furnace oil. Based on the amount
of coal requirement and coal ash effect on clinker an attempts to proper raw mix
design using an excel application and selection of required equipments if Dilbi
coal is replaced in place of fuel oil in MCF is done .
The economical analysis shows that substantial investment for additional
facilities and equipment are required. However, time required to recapture the
total investment cost outlay is two years. In addition to this foreign currency
earning and an additional employment opportunity can be achieved.
Finally it is shown from the environmental analysis of applying LCA of 1kg
clinker production from “cradle to gate” using coal and fuel oil as energy source
that there is not a big difference of environmental impact.
In view of this study, it is recommended that cement plants which are in
operation now and for newly installed to use coal as alternative source of energy
and to show their concerns as soon as possible.|
|Description: ||A Thesis Submitted To the School of Graduate Studies of Addis Ababa University in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in
|Appears in:||Thesis - Chemical Engineering|
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