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Title: Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extracts of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and Ajuga remota Benth grown in Ethiopia on alloxan-induced diabetic mice
Authors: Tadesse, Bekele
Advisors: Dr. Ariaya Hymete
Dr. Mekuria Tadesse
Dr. Yalemtsehay Mekonnen
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus
Antidiabetic activities
Stevia rebaudiana
Blood glucose level
Ajuga remota
Stevioside
Copyright: 2008
Date Added: 21-Jan-2009
Publisher: Addis Ababa University
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem in the world. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing with ageing of the population and lifestyle changes associated with rapid urbanization and westernization. According to the World Health Organization estimate 3% of the world’s populations (194 million) have diabetes and is expected to double (6.3%) by the year 2025 and that of Ethiopia was about 800,000 cases in 2000, and the number is expected to increase to 1.8 million by 2030. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Asteraceae) and Ajuga remota Benth (Lamiaceae) has been used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and various other ailments in the traditional medical system world wide. This study reports the antidiabetic activity of crude extracts of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni & Ajuga remota Benth grown in Ethiopia on alloxan-induced diabetic mice A preliminary toxicity study of S. rebaudiana and A. remota crude extracts was done using Swiss albino mice in oral doses of 1000, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. The result showed that the medium lethal dose (LD50) of the extracts is higher than 5000 mg/kg body weight and hence, in a single dose administration, the plant extracts had no adverse effect. The result obtained is in agreement with that of Geuns (2003) for S. rebaudiana and Worku (2005) for A. remota. The preliminary phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins and steroids in both plants and alkaloids in the leaves of S. rebaudiana. Extracts of both plants did not contain anthraquinones. The result obtained here is in agreement with that of Anonymous-a (1999) for S. rebaudiana and Worku (2005) for A. remota. A concentration of 2.27 % stevioside was obtained in the leaves of S. rebaudiana. The antihyperglycemic activity of the crude aqueous and ethanol extracts of S. rebaudiana and A. remota were studied in alloxan-induced (200 mg/kg body weight, ip.) diabetic mice, after oral administration at a dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight for two weeks. Administration of crude aqueous extract of S. rebaudiana for 14 days lowered elevated blood glucose levels by 30.27% (300 mg/kg) and 42.65% (500 mg/kg) that shows S. rebaudiana has retained its antidiabetic activity when grown out of its natural habitat, i.e. in Ethiopia. In the case of A. remota, blood glucose reduction was 27.96% and 38.98% respectively for the dose levels tested. Crude ethanol extract of S. rebaudiana and A. remota (300 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 14 days) lowered blood glucose level by 28.71% & 33.04% and 28.09% & 28.25% respectively as compared with diabetic untreated mice. Treatment with the known antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide (10 mg/kg body weight) lowered blood glucose level by 51.06%. The effect was more pronounced in the case of the crude aqueous extract as compared with the crude ethanol extract on the respective dose limits for both plant cases.
Description: A Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, Addis Ababa University in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Degree of Masters of Science in Medicinal Chemistry
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/1949
Appears in:Thesis - Medicinal Chemistry

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