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Title: DRINKING WATER SOURCE AND THE PREVALENCE OF Giardia lamblia AND Cryptosporidium parvum AMONG CHILDREN IN SELECTED VILLAGES OF PAWI SPECIAL DISTRICT, BENISHANGUL_GUMUZ REGION
Authors: EYASU, TIGABU
Date Added: 21-Sep-2007
Abstract: Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are parasitic protozoans that infect humans as well as domestic and wild animals all over the world. These parasites are implicated in many water borne disease outbreaks in different parts of the world. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of these two parasites among children below 14 years old that drink water from unprotected water sources-Ali-spring, Diga dam, and hand dug wells and “protected” wells with hand pumps in selected villages (Almu, K2V24 and K2V23/45) in Pawi Special District Benishangul-Gumuz Region. Single stool specimens were collected from a total of 384 children from the three villages. For identification of Cryptosporidium parvum the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method was used. Giardia lamblia was detected using direct microscopy based on wet mount and formalin-ether concentration techniques. Out of the 384 children examined, 102 (26.6%) and 31 (8.1%) were found positive for G.lamblia and C.parvum infection, respectively. Overall co-infection with intestinal parasites was detected in 4.4% of the study participants, in which G.lamblia and C.parvum comprised the highest proportion. Prevalence of giardiasis in female children was significantly higher than in the males (p<0.05), suggesting a higher risk of exposure of females to contaminated water. However, no significant association was observed for infection of cryptosporidiosis between the two sexes (p>0.05). G.lamblia and C.parvum infection prevalence was not significantly different among the different age groups (p>0.05). On the other hand, the prevalence of G.lamblia and C.parvum was associated with the source of drinking water with more cases of giardiasis detected in study participants using water from unprotected water sources than those using the “protected” water (p<0.05). Contrary to this, more cases of cryptosporidiosis (P<0.05) were detected in those using “protected” water sources (water wells with hand pumps). This could be an indication of the possibility of water well contamination through seepage from domestic latrines as these wells are constructed close to residential houses. Children from relatively high monthly income families were less (P<0.05) affected by giardiasis than from low monthly income families; however, no such association was detected in the case of cryptosporidiosis. Furthermore, breast feeding and its duration was negatively associated (P<0.05) with G.lamblia prevalence suggesting a protective role for breast milk against giardiasis. Thus from the finding of the study one can conclude that provision of well protected and treated drinking water must be considered a priority to reduce the existing high prevalence of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in Pawi Special District.
Description: A Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of the Addis Ababa University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Biology (Biomedical Science)
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/133
Appears in:Thesis - Biology

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