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Title: INVESTIGATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS ON THE GENUS SHIGELLA AND SALMONELLA CAUSING DIARRHOEA IN CHILDREN
Authors: SAMSON, GIRMA
Advisors: Dr. Abera Geyid
Dr. Asfaw Debela
Professor Selishi Lulseged
Keywords: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
Gardinea lutea
Olea europaea subsp
Myrica salisfolia
Copyright: 2005
Date Added: 27-May-2008
Publisher: Addis Ababa University
Abstract: Diarrhoea, particularly infectious diarrhoea in children less than 5 yrs of age is labeled as the second leading cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. This is especially true in developing countries like Ethiopia where there is poor sanitation and overcrowding. Among the leading causes of infectious diarrhoea, Salmonella and Shigella contributes a lot. Currently the chemotherapeutical treatment of salmonellosis and shigellosis is complicated as a result of drug resistance. Moreover, since the majority of the people who lives in these developing countries have no access for modern treatment, it has made them to look for other alternative therapies such as, the use of medicinal plants. Ethiopia is one of the well known countries of the world where medicinal plants are used widely. The major objective of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial activity of three medicinal plants (Gardinea lutea, Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata, Myrica salisfolia) against clinical isolates of Shigella and Salmonella and a control strain E. coli ATCC (25922). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the three medicinal plant extracts including their semi purified fractions, and modern antibiotics were determined, using the standard agar dilution method (NCCLS). Those fractionated extracts which have shown weak to high antimicrobial activity and the three antibiotics, (Chloramphinicol, Tetracycline and Norfloxacin) have been tested in three replicates. From the three plants of both the crude and semi purified fractionate of Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata has shown weak activity against both Shigella and Salmonella. The MIC of Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata is > 2000μg/ml for both clinical isolates. The other two plants xii (Gardinea lutea and Myrica salicfolia) have shown relatively better MIC value, particularly against the clinical isolates of Shigella and Salmonella species. The range of MIC, where antishigella activity was recorded for both the crude and butanol fraction of Gardinea lutea was between 2000μg/ml - 250μg/ml and the range of MIC for both the crude and fractionated extracts Myrica salisfolia is greater than or equal 1000μg/ml for both clinical isolates of Shigella and Salmonella. As compared to the result of modern antibiotics, it can be suggested that, the plant extracts have shown weak activity with low MIC values. Among the antibiotics, tetracycline, has shown MIC value of >200 μg/ml, for both Salmonella and Shigella. While chloramphinicol has shown MIC value of <600μg/ml for Salmonella isolates and >150μg/ml for Shigella isolates. The least MIC value was obtained for norfloxacin with MIC value of > 0.43μg/ml with 100% growth inhibition for Shigella and Salmonella. Further investigations (purifications) could enhance, especially for the antimicrobial activity of the semi purified butanol fractionates of Gardinea lutea and Myrica salisfolia which have shown relatively the best activity against the clinical isolates of Salmonella and Shigella.
Description: A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES, ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY, IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/1252
Appears in:Thesis - Biology

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