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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/1207

Title: IMMUNOPATHOGENSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL LEISHMANIASIS, BASED ON INFECTIONS BY LOCAL STRAINS OF LEISHMANIA IN GRIVET MONKEYS (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS), SYRIAN HAMSTERS (MESOCRICETUS AURATUS) AND BALB/C MICE
Authors: Tamrat, Abebe
Advisors: Prof. Asrat Hailu
Keywords: Leishmaniasis; low dose; sand fly saliva; lesion size;target organ/tissue;antibody; cytokine.
Copyright: 2005
Date Added: 23-May-2008
Publisher: Addis Ababa university
Abstract: Abstract Leishmaniasis, a spectrum of diseases, is a global health problem that affects both humans and other animals. Chemotherapy, immunotherapy and immunoprophylaxis are ideal tools for the battle against leishmaniasis. Critical assessment of the parasitological, clinical and immunological spectrum of low dose infection was important to develop live-low dose vaccine. To this end, CL and VL were induced in experimental animals (BALB/c mice, hamsters, and grivet monkeys) by intradermal inoculation of different species and doses of Leishmania. High dose inoculation of L. aethiopica and L. major into the nose tip of the hamsters resulted in nodular lesion. Significantly greater lesion size and severity was observed in male hamsters. Low dose infection of the dermotrophic Leishmania together with saliva exacerbated severity and clinical evolution of lesion. Only 3 out of 30 the hamsters inoculated with low dose Leishmania developed observable clinical lesion. The failure of the L. aethiopica and L. major to produce lesion in the 27 hamsters was not due to an effective immune response, since the DTH reaction was negative. Infection of Grivet monkeys with varying doses of L. donovani complex was assessed. Typical infection was established in all groups of monkeys irrespective of the dose. Biopsy and necropsy findings indicated the dissemination of the parasite to the different target organs and/or tissues. Analysis of antibody response profile of the monkeys using DAT indicated gradual development and sustained rise of antibody. Cytokine assay using ELISA showed the production of mixed Th1 (IFN- , IL-12, & TNF-a) and Th2 (IL-4 & IL-10) like cytokine profile. One-Way ANOVA followed by LSD test showed significant (P<0.05) differences in the cytokine production of experimental and control groups. A tendency of a shift towards Th1 from Th2 cytokine profile was also observed in the later stage of infection. Notwithstanding the caveats, this study showed the possibility of inducing protective immunity by low dose leishmanization.
Description: A THESIS SUBMITTED TO GRADUATE STUDIES PROGRAMME ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASTERS OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/1207
Appears in:Thesis - Medical Microbiology

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