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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/1150

Authors: Gebru, Ayehubzu
Advisors: Dr.-Ing. Daniel Kitaw
Copyright: 2002
Date Added: 20-May-2008
Publisher: Addis Ababa University
Abstract: The development differences prevailing today in different parts of the world are largely due to the differences in creating and/or using science and technology (S&T) for the benefits of society. In S&T, research and development (R&D) is the most important tool. In Ethiopia, R&D activity is a recent phenomenon. Since 1993, the Ethiopian Science and Technology Commission (ESTC) is running a Local Research and Development Grant (LRG) Program to support small R&D projects. The Program is open to every individual and organization in the S&T areas of agriculture, health, industry (manufacturing, construction, and transport & communication), water, mines and energy and information technology. The Program involves the ESTC, the Councils, the hosting institutions and the researchers as the main stakeholders with different roles. In the Program, the Government avails a maximum grant of Birr 25,000 per project. Projects with life span of 12 months and below are supported. The assessment carried out on 63 industrial LRG projects with approved grant of Birr 1,029,648 in the eight cycles (1993-2000) shows that only seven percent of the projects are completed at and below 12 months. The average completion time is 29 months. No project is concluded according to its budget breakdown. Only 32% of the projects are completed as planned financially in aggregate. Sixteen percent of the approved fund is not utilized by the projects. Sixty-eight percent of this unutilized fund is not returned to the account of the ESTC. The results of more than 62% of the projects are shelved. Most of the reports are poorly presented. They are shallow and do not indicate clearly what the project team has done. Sixty-five percent of the projects are completed, 14% and 21% are discontinued and ongoing respectively. Fundamentals of Project Management xv Many causes are reported by the researchers for these performance deviations. General activities to be carried out by the main stakeholders and the Government are indicated in the study so that the results of the projects can contribute to the industrial S&T development of the country. The problem of project selection is treated here in detail. It is one of the most important decisions involved in R&D because it allows to optimally allocate the limited financial resource, and to select projects with high probability of success and maximum profitability and that best further the goals of the country (direction, extent and balance of R&D). An integer/binary programming model subject to sectoral/sub-sectoral budget constraint is developed and solved for project selection. The model ranks and selects projects based on their benefit-to-cost ratio such that the sum of their costs doesn't exceed the available sector/subsector budget. The sector/sub-sector budget can be allocated by the principle of "apportionment by ratios" from the Government budget of the Program. The program/software that performs this selection process is developed using Microsoft Access and Visual Basic. The result of the software has shown differences from the existing method in the priority of the projects selected, as expected.
Description: A Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies of Addis Ababa University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering (Industrial Engineering Specialization)
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/1150
Appears in:Thesis - Applied Mechanics

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